Structural isomers of c3h6o


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NCER Solutions For Class 10 Science 2020 Chapter Wise

NCERT Class 10 model questions and answers for the choices equal are furnished in this web page for science. Practise of those questions will help the students to recognize the choices principles even better and rating properly inside the exams. The chapters in science are divided into Part A, B and C. Part A includes Multiple Choice Questions, Part B includes Short Answer type questions and Part C includes Long Answer kind questions. The chapters with questions of various kinds are given underneath.

Chapter 1 : Chemical Reactions and Equations

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the subsequent isn’t always a physical change?

2. The following reaction is an example of a 4NH3 (g) + 502 (g) à 4NO (g) + 6 H2 O (g)

A redox reaction is mixture of oxidation (removal of hydrogen) and discount (addition of hydrogen). Displacement reaction entails displacement of some part of a compound with different atom like H atoms of NH3 are displaced via oxygen.

3. Which of the following statements approximately the choices given reaction are correct?

3 Fe(s) + four H2O (g) à Fe3O (s) + four H2 (g)

Explanation: Addition of oxygen to Fe is an oxidation procedure whereas lose of oxygen from H2O to H2 is a discount step. Since water is source of oxygen therefore it acts as oxidizing agent.

four. Which of the subsequent are exothermic methods?

Explanation : Energy is released in exothermic reactions in the form of heat.

5. Three beakers labelled as A, B and C each containing 25ml of water had been taken. A small quantity of NaOH, anhydrous CuSO4 and NaCl have been introduced to the beakers A, B and C respectively. It was determined that there was an boom inside the temperature of the choices solutions contained in beakers A and B, whereas in case of beaker C, the choices temperature of the answer falls. Which one of the following announcement(s) is (are) correct?

Explanation: For an exothermic reaction, warmness releases in the course of reaction so temperature will increase whereas endothermc reactions proceed with absorption of heat which decrease the temperature of reaction.

6. A dilute ferrous sulphate solution become gradually delivered to the beaker containing acidified permanganate answer. The mild red color of the answer fades and finally disappears. Which of the following is the right reason behind the observation?

Explanation : Potassium permanganate (KmnO4) acts as appropriate oxidizing agent in acidic medium and reduces itself to manganese (II) cations, Mn2+. It oxidizes FeSO4 to Fe2(SO4)three.

7. Which some of the following is (are) double displacement reaction(s) ?

A double displacement response includes displacement of ions of exceptional compounds that effects the formation of new compounds.

eight. Which some of the following declaration (s) is or are authentic? Exposure of silver chloride to daylight for a long period turns grey because of –

In the choices presence of daylight, AgCl decompose to form grayish white silver metallic and releases chlorine gas.

9. Solid calcium oxide reacts vigorously with water to shape calcium hydroxide followed with the aid of liberation of heat. This manner is referred to as slaking of lime. Calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to form its solution referred to as lime water. Which some of the following is are genuine approximately asking slaking of lime and the answer fashioned?

The formation of calcium hydroxide from calcium oxide and water with warmth so it’s miles an exothermic response. Calcium hydroxide is a basic compound so pH may be greater than 7.

10. Barium chloride on reacting with ammonium sulphate bureaucracy barium sulphate and ammonium chloride. Which of the following efficiently represents the choices form of the choices response involved?

Double displacement response includes displacement of cation and anions of special compounds. In given reaction, precipitate of barium sulphate is fashioned.

11. Electrolysis of water is a decomposition reaction. The mole ratio of hydrogen and oxygen gases liberated at some point of electrolysis of water is

The balance chemical equation for electrolysis of water is;

2H2O(1) ——————–à 2H2(g) + O2(g)

12. Which of the subsequent is (are) an endothermic process(es) ?

An endothermic process involves absorption of warmth together with sublimation and evaporation needs heat power.

thirteen. In the choices double displacement response between aqueous potassium iodide and aqueous lead nitrate, a yellow precipitate of lead iodide is formed. While appearing the choices pastime if lead nitrate isn’t always to be had, which of the subsequent can be utilized in area of lead nitrate?

For the formation of lead iodide some soluble salt of lead is required like lead acetate as a way to form lead iodide with potassium acetate.

14. Which of the following gases can be used for garage of clean pattern of an oil for a long time?

Inert gases like Helium and Nitrogen may be used for garage of food items as they save you the oxidation of food gadgets.

15. The following response is used for the choices preparation of oxygen gas within the laboratory

2KC1O3(s)—————-à 2KC1 (s) + 3O2(g)

Which of the subsequent announcement(s) is/are accurate approximately the response?

Explanation : Decomposition reaction may be described as the reaction which includes decomposition of one compound to multiple substance. Endothermic reactions require warmth electricity to form merchandise.

12. Which one of the following procedures involve chemical reactions?

Explanation : Chemical changes involve formation of new compounds from one or more materials. Reaction of copper cord with oxygen forms copper (ii) oxide.

17. In which of the following chemical equations, the abbreviations represent the suitable states of the choices reactants and products involved at reaction temperature?

At general conditions, hydrogen and oxygen exist in gaseous state whereas water in liquid country.

18. Which of the following are mixture reactions?

Combination reactions form a brand new product with the combination of more than one reactant molecules.

Part B : Short Answer Type

19. Write the balanced chemical equations for the subsequent reactions and perceive the form of response in each case.

This is an instance of mixture response.

This is an example of neutralization response in addition to double displacement response.

This is an example of double displacement reaction and additionally known as as esterification.

This is an instance of combustion response.

20. Write the choices balanced chemical equation for the following reactions and perceive the type of response in each case.

This is an example of displacement and redo

This is an instance of aggregate response.

This is an example of redox and displacement reaction.

d. C2H5OH(I) + 3O2(g) —–à 2CO2 (g) + three H2O + Heat

This is an instance of combustion response.

21. Complete the choices lacking components given as X and Y within the following.

22. Which a few of the following changes are exothermic or endothermic in nature?

23. Identify the decreasing agent within the following reactions.

a. NH3 is the choices lowering agent as it gives hydrogen to O2.

b. H2O is the lowering agent.

c. CO is a decreasing agent.

d. H2 is the reducing agent.

24. Identify the choices oxidant inside the following reactions.

a. Since O2 affords oxygen, it’s far the choices oxidant.

b. CuO is the oxidant as it’s far reduced to Cu.

25. Write the choices balanced chemical equations for the following.

a. Sodium carbonate on response with hydrochloric acid in identical molar concentrations offers sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen carbonate.

b. Sodium hydrogen carbonate on response with hydrochloric acid gives sodium chloride, water and liberates carbon dioxide.

c. Copper sulphate on remedy with potassium iodide precipitates cuprous iodide, liberates iodide fuel and also paperwork potassium sulphate.

a. Na2CO3(s) + HCl (aq) à NaCl (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq)

b. NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) à NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

c. 2CuSO4(s) + 4Kl(aq)à Cu2l2 + I2 (g) + 2K2SO4(aq)

26. A answer of potassium chloride while mixed with silver nitrate answer, an insoluble white substance is shaped. Write the chemical response involved and additionally point out the choices sort of the chemical response.

The solution of KCl with AgNO3 shape white precipitate of AgCl. This is a double displacement response.

KCl (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) à AgCl (s) + KNO3 (aq)

27. Ferrous sulphate decomposes with the evolution of a gasoline having a characteristics odour of burning sulphur. Write the chemical reaction worried and perceive the choices type of reaction.

2FeSO4(s) à Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g)

The heating of ferrous sulphate gives ferric oxide and combination of sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide gasoline. This is an example of thermal decomposition reaction and the odour of burning sulphur is due to SO2 gasoline.

28. Why do fireplace flies glow at night time?

Fire flies have a luminous bag which includes a protein; luciferin. The oxidation of luciferin takes place within the presence of luciferare enzyme with emission of light which takes place because of oxidation of magnesium. Hence they glow at night.

29. grapes putting on the choices plant do not ferment however after being plucked from the plant can be fermented. Under what situations do these grapes ferment? Is it a chemical or bodily alternate?

After plucking grapes from vegetation, fermentation of sugar is accomplished in the presence of yeast which changes sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. This procedure occurs inside the absence of oxygen manner in anaerobic conditions.

Whereas grapes connect to plant contain in cardio respiration and no fermentation can be possible below cardio situations.

Here fermentation is a chemical exchange because it outcomes the formation of latest substances; alcohol and carbon dioxide.

30. Which most of the following are bodily or chemical changes?

31. During the response of a few metals with dilute hydrochloric acid, following observations had been made.

Explain these observations giving suitable motives.

32. A substance X, which is an oxide of a group 2 element, is used intensively in the cement industry. This element is found in bones also. On remedy with water it forms an answer which turns purple litmus blue. Identify X and also write the choices chemical reactions worried.

The substance X is calcium oxide (CaO) which is also called short lime. Reaction of brief lime with water bureaucracy calcium hydroxide. It is an alkaline solution and without problems turns pink litmus to blue.

CaO(s) + H2O -> Ca(OH)2

33. Write a balanced chemical equation for every of the following reactions and also classify them.

a. Lead acetate answer is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to form lead chloride and acetic acid answer.

b. A piece of sodium metal is introduced to absolute ethanol to shape sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.

c. Iron (III) oxide on heating with carbon monoxide fuel reacts to form solid iron and liberates carbon dioxide gas.

d. Hydrogen sulphate gas reacts with oxygen gas to form strong sulphur and liquid water.

a. Pb (CH3COO)2 (aq) + 2HCl (dil) –> PbCl2(s) + 2CH3COOH(aq)

This is a double displacement and a precipitation response.

b. 2C2H5OH(I) + 2Na(s) –> 2C2H5O-Na+ + H2

This is a displacement response.

c. Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) –> 2Fe(s) + 3CO2 (g)

This is an instance of redox response.

d. 2H2S(g) + O2 (g) –> 2S (s) + 2 H2O(I)

This is an example of redox reaction.

34. Why will we shop silver chloride in dark colored bottles?

Silver chloride can decompose in the presence of light to form silver steel consequently it ought to save in darkish coloured bottles that can interrupt the direction of mild and prevent the decomposition of silver chloride.

The photochemical decomposition of silver chloride is proven under;

2AgCl(s)———> 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g)

35. Balance the subsequent chemical equation and identify chemical response the type of chemical response.

a. Mg(s) + Cl(g) –> MgCl2(s)

b. H2O2 (I) ——–> H2O + O2(g)

a. Mg(s) + Cl2(g) –> MgCl2(s) (Combination reaction)

b. 2H2O2 (I) —–> 2H2O (l) + O2(g) (Photochemical reaction)

36. A magnesium ribbon is burnt in oxygen to provide a white compound X followed through emission of light. If the burning ribbon is now placed in an environment of nitrogen, it keeps to burn and paperwork a compound Y.

a. Write the choices chemical formulae of X and Y.

b. Write a balanced chemical equation, whilst X is dissolved in water.

a. The chemical formulae of X=MgO; Y=Mg3N2

b. MgO + H2O –> Mg (OH)2

37. Zinc liberates hydrogen gas while reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid, whereas copper does no longer. Explain, why?

Zinc is positioned above hydrogen in reactivity series consequently it can replace hydrogen from HCl and form hydrogen gas.

Zn + 2HCl –> ZnCl2 + H2

Whereas copper is placed underneath hydrogen in reactivity collection therefore it can’t replace hydrogen from dilute acid and does no longer launch hydrogen gas from dilute hydrochloric acid.

Cu + HCl –> No response

38. A silver article usually turns black whilst kept in the open for some days. The article whilst rubbed with toothpaste again starts offevolved shining.

a. Why do silver articles flip black while kept within the open for a few days? Name the phenomenon concerned.

b. Name the black substance formed and offers its chemical formulation.

a. The metallic surface of silver article reacts with surroundings sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and shape black layer of sulphides. This phenomenon is referred to as as corrosion or tarnishing of silver.

b. The black substance that is formed through the reaction of hydrogen sulphide and atmospheric oxygen is silver sulphide (Ag2S).

Part C : Long Answer Type

39. On heating blue colored podwer of copper (II) nitrate in a boiling tube, copper oxide (black), oxygen gas and a brown fuel X is fashioned.

a. Write a balanced chemical equation of the choices reaction.

b. Identify the choices brown gas X developed.

c. Identify the choices type of reaction.

d. What may be the pH variety of aqueous answer of the choices fuel X.

40. Give the choices function checks for the following gases.

a.CO2 gasoline : When gas is exceeded via lime water; it paperwork insoluble calcium carbonate which turns the answer milky. This is referred to as as lime water take a look at.

CO2 + H2O + CaCO3 à Ca (HCO3)2

b.SO2 gasoline: Due to acidic nature, sulphur dioxide fuel turn wet litmus paper from blue to red. It additionally changes the choices orange colour of acidified potassium dichromate method to green.

K2Cr2­O7 + 3SO2 + H2SO4 à Cr2 (SO4)three + K2SO4 + H2O

c. O2 gasoline: Oxygen gasoline burns brightly with wooden splinter that proves the combustible nature of oxygen gas.

C +O2 à CO2 + Heat + Light

forty one. What happens while a chunk of

a. Zinc metallic is delivered to copper sulphate solution?

b. Aluminium steel is delivered to dilute hydrochloric acid?

c. silver metal is delivered to copper sulphate solution?

a.When zinc metal is delivered to copper sulphate solution, the choices color of copper sulphate solution disappears and coloursless zinc sulphate solution is formed. Solid brown copper is deposited as it displaces via Zn.

b. Aluminium displaces hydrogen from HCl and hydrogen gasoline is developed with soluble aluminium chloride.

c. Silver is a Nobel steel and does not show off any response with copper sulphate.

forty two. What occurs while zinc granules are treated with dilute solution of NaCl and NaOH, also write chemical equation.

No reaction will take region as sodium is more reactive than Zn and can’t update by using it.

Zn(s) + NaCl (aq) à No reaction

Zinc reacts with NaOH answer and shape sodium tetrahydroxidozincate and hydrogen fuel.

Zn + 2NaOH + 2H­2­O à Na2 [Zn(OH4)] + H2

forty three. On adding a drop of barium chloride technique to an aqueous answer of sodium sulphite, white precipitate is obtained.

a. Write a balanced chemical equation of the reaction worried.

b. What other call may be given to this precipitation reaction?

c. On adding dilute hydrochloric acid to the choices response mixture, white precipitate disappears. Why?

a.Na2SO3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) àBaSO3(s) + 2NaCl (aq)

b.Double displacement response

c.Addition of HCl dissolves the choices white precipitate of BaSO3 and shape soluble BaCl2.

forty four. You are furnished with bins made from copper and aluminium. You also are provided with solutions of dilute HCl, dilute HNO3 and H2O. In which of the choices packing containers these solutions can be stored?

Copper famous no reaction with HCl so it is able to be saved in copper box.

With dilute nitric acid, copper metallic paperwork copper nitrate with nitric oxide and water so dilute nitric acid can not be saved in copper field.

There is no response between water and copper metal at room temperature so water may be stored in copper container.

Aluminium reacts with Al reacts with dilute HCl and form aluminium chloride with hydrogen gas so it can not be saved in aluminium container.

Nitric acid is an oxidizing agent and inside the presence of it, aluminium steel forms a shielding layer of oxide so it’ll not react similarly. Hence dilute nitric acid can be saved in aluminium box.

At room temperature, there might be no reaction among aluminium metallic and water so it may be stored in aluminium container.

Chapter 2 : Acid, Base and Salt

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.What happens while a solution of an acid is blended with an answer of a base in a test tube?

(i)The temperature of the answer increases.

(ii) The temperature of the solution decreases.

(iii)The temperature of the answer stays the equal.

(iv)Salt formation takes area.

The response of acid and base is an exothermic reaction and outcomes the choices formation of salt and water.

2. An aqueous answer turns red litmus solution blue. Excess addition of which of the following solution might reverse the choices change?

c. Ammonium hydroxide solution

Alkaline answers turn crimson litmus paper to blue. Excess of acid will reverse the choices changes so we need to add extra of hydrochloric acid which turns the solution acidic.

three. During the practise of hydrogen chloride gas on a humid day, the choices gasoline is normally passed thru the choices guard tube containing calcium chloride. The function of calcium chloride taken within the guard tube is to

a. Absorb the choices advanced fuel

b. Moisten the fuel

c. Absorb moisture from the gas

d. Absorb CI- ions from the choices developed gas.

Calcium chloride is a superb dehydrating agent so it’s miles used to absorb moisture from the hydrogen chloride gasoline.

4. Which of the following salts does not contain water of crystallisation?

5. Sodium carbonate is a basic salt due to the fact it’s far a salt of

a. Strong acid and sturdy base

b.vulnerable acid and weak base

c. robust acid and vulnerable base

d.vulnerable acid and strong base

Sodium carbonate is the salt of carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide. Here NaOH is a sturdy base and carbonic acid is a vulnerable acid.

6. Calcium phosphate is present in tooth enamel. Its nature is

Calcium phosphate is salt of weak acid and sturdy base so it’s miles a fundamental salt.

7. A pattern of soil is mixed with water and allowed to settle. The clear supernatant answer turns the choices pH paper yellowish-orange. Which of the following might alternate the choices shade of this pH paper to greenish blue?

pH paper gives greenish blue color in weak alkaline medium so antacid that is an alkaline compound will show greenish blue color on pH paper.

8. Which of the following offers the appropriate growing order of acid strength?

a. water < acetic acid < hydrochloric acid

b. water acetic acid

c. acetic acid < water < hydrochloric acid

d. hydrochloric acid < water < acetic acid

Water is a natural substance, hydrochloric acid is a robust acid as it ionizes completely in water, whereas acetic acid ionizes simplest partially in water, consequently, it’s miles a vulnerable acid.

9. If a few drops of a concentrated acid by chance spills over the hand of a scholar, what need to be done?

a. Wash the choices hand with saline answer.

b. Wash the hand right now with masses of water and follow a paste of sodium hydrogen carbonate.

c. After washing with masses of water applies answer of sodium hydroxide on the choices hand.

d. Neutralise the choices acid with a robust alkali.

Use of sodium hydrogen carbonate neutralizes the choices effect of acid completely.

10. Sodium hydrogen carbonate whilst added to acetic acid evolve a gasoline. Which of the following statements are genuine approximately the gas advanced?

(i) It turns lime water milky.

(ii)It extinguishes a burning splinter.

(iii)It dissolves in a solution of sodium hydroxide.

(iv)It has a stinky odour.

(i), (ii) and (iii)

(ii), (iii) and (iv)

Reaction of sodium hydrogen carbonate with acetic acid forms sodium acetate and water with carbon dioxide (CO2) gasoline

11. Common salt besides being utilized in kitchen can also be used as the raw fabric for making

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (i), (ii) and (iv)

c. (i), (ii) and (iii)

d. (i), (iii) and (iv)

Common salt is used as a uncooked fabric for manufacturing of sodium hydroxide, washing soda, bleaching powder, baking soda, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and so forth.

12. One of the materials of baking powder is sodium hydrogen carbonate, the opposite constituent is

Baking powder is a aggregate of sodium hydrogen carbonate and a vulnerable safe to eat acid named as tartaric acid.

thirteen. To shield tooth decay we are cautioned to comb our teeth frequently. The nature of the choices teeth paste normally used is

The teeth paste typically used is alkaline or fundamental in nature. So they are able to neutralize the impact of more acids present in mouth cavity which might be particularly liable for teeth decay.

14. Which of the subsequent statements is accurate approximately an aqueous solution of an acid and a base?

(i) Higher the pH, stronger the acid

(ii) Higher the pH, weaker the choices acid

(iii) Lower the choices pH, stronger the base

(iv) Lower the pH, weaker the base

The pH fee lie between zero to fourteen wherein zero to 7 is acidic medium and seven to 14 is alkaline or fundamental medium.

15. The pH of the gastric juices launched at some point of digestion is

Hydrochloric acid is produced by means of our belly at some point of digestion.

16. Which of the following phenomena occur, whilst a small amount of acid is introduced to water?

a. (i) and (ii)

b.(i) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iii)

d. (ii) and (iv)

Ionization may be defined as the choices dissociation of molecule into its respective ions. Mixing of an acid with water decreases the concentration of acid and is known as as dilution.

17. Which one of the following can be used as an acid-base indicator by means of a visually impaired pupil?

An olfactory indicator is required for visually impaired scholar. Vanilla essence imparts unique odor in unique medium so may be used for such college students.

18. Which of the subsequent materials will no longer provide carbon dioxide on remedy with dilute acid?

Marble or lime stone and baking soda release CO2 with HCl but lime with HCl shape CaCl2 and water.

19. Which of the subsequent is acidic in nature?

Lime juice consists of citric acid and so acidic in nature.

20. In an try to display electrical conductivity via an electrolyte, the subsequent apparatus (figure) was installation.

Which a number of the following statement is correct?

Strong acids or bases are top conductors of energy because they ionize absolutely in aqueous answer to provide ions.

21. Which of the subsequent is used for dissolution of gold?

Aqua-regia is a completely sturdy acid and may be used to dissolve gold. It is a 1:3 mixture of focused HNO3 and concentrated HCl.

22. Which of the subsequent is not a mineral acid?

Mineral acids are specially prepared from the minerals present in the earth’s crust so they may be also known as as inorganic acids like HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3. Organic acids are comprised of plants or animals and contain carbon atoms like acetic acid and citric acid.

23. Which a number of the following isn’t a base?

d. C2H5OH

C2H5OH is an natural compound with -OH functional group that is called alcohol. It can not give OH- ions in its answer.

24. Which of the following statements isn’t always correct?

a. All metallic carbonates react with acid to offer a salt, water and carbon dioxide.

b. All metal oxides react with water to offer salt and acid.

c. Some metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen.

d. Some non-metal oxides react with water to shape an acid.

Some of the choices metallic oxides react with water to form alkali like sodium oxide reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide.

25.Match the choices chemical substances given in Column I with their appropriate utility given in Column II.

26.Equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and sodium hrdroxide answers of same awareness are blended and the choices pH of the choices ensuing answer is checked with a pH paper. What will be the shade acquired?

Hydrochloric acid and sodium hrdroxide are strong acid and base respectively. So mixing of sturdy acid and strong base will form impartial salt and water giving the pH value as 7.

27. Which of the subsequent is /are proper whilst HCl(g) is surpassed thru water?

(i) it does no longer ionise in the answer as it is a covalent compound

(ii) it ionises in the answer

(iii) it gives each hydrogen and hydroxyl ion in the answer.

(iv)it paperwork hydronium ion within the answer because of the combination of hydrogen ion with water molecule.

HCl being a polar covalent compound that could effortlessly ionize in water to shape hydronium ions (H3O+) and chloride ions (Cl-).

28. Which of the following statement is real for acids?

a. sour and change purple litmus to blue

b. bitter and alternate crimson litmus to blue

c. sour and change blue litmus to pink

d. bitter and exchange blue litmus to pink

Acids have sour taste and might flip blue litmus technique to crimson.

29. Which of the subsequent are present in a dilute aqueous answer of hydrochloric acid?

a. H3O+ + Cl-

b. H3O+ + OH –

A robust acid like HCl dissociates absolutely in its aqueous solution and shape hydronium ions with its respective anion.

30. Identify the proper illustration of reaction occurring throughout chloralkali process.

Chlor-alkali technique is an commercial technique this is used to form sodium hydroxide by electrolysis of aqueous answer of sodium chloride. It forms sodium hydroxide with hydrogen and chlorine gas as by using-merchandise.

Part B : Short Answer Type

31. Match the acids given in Column I with their correct source given in Column II.

32. Match the choices critical chemical compounds given in Column I with the choices chemical formulae given in Column II.

a.Plaster of Paris

a.Plaster of Paris

33. What could be the movement of the subsequent substances on litmus paper?

Dry HCl gasoline, moistened NH3 fuel, lemon juice, carbonated tender drink, curd, cleaning soap answer.

34. Name the choices acid found in ant sting and provide its chemical formulation. Also give the commonplace approach to get alleviation from the choices pain as a result of the choices ant sting.

Acid found in ant sting is formic acid which is also named as Methanoic acid. Chemical components for formic acid is HCOOH. It is acidic in nature, so an alkaline compound like wet baking soda may be used to neutralize its effect to get comfort from pain.

35. What occurs while nitric acid is brought to egg shell?

Calcium carbonate is principal issue of egg shell so when we add nitric acid to egg shell, it reacts with calcium carbonate to shape soluble calcium nitrate and water with brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide gas.

36. A student organized solutions of (i) an acid and (ii) a base in separate beakers. She forgot to label the choices answers and litmus paper is not available in the laboratory. Since each the choices answers are colourless, how will she distinguish between the two?

Other than litmus paper, pH signs also can be used to differentiate among an acidic and an alkaline solution. Some common pH signs are methyl orange, phenolphthalein. They show function colour trade in acidic and alkaline medium. Some natural signs together with turmeric, red cabbage juice can also used to discover acidic and alkaline behavior of solutions.

Colour in acidic medium

Colour in basic medium

37. How would you distinguish among baking powder and washing soda via heating?

Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) which forms sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), water and carbon dioxide gas at the same time as heating.

Presence of CO2 can be detected with the assist of lime water which turns milky after reacting with carbon dioxide gas.

Washing soda is sodium carbonate deca-hydrate because of this there are alternatives 10 water molecules gift with crystal hence named as water of crystallization.

On heating washing soda, it becomes anhydrous and presence of water of crystallization may be detected with the assist of anhydrous CuSO4 which indicates color trade from white to blue with moisture.

38. Salt A typically used in bakery products on heating receives converted into any other salt B which itself is used for elimination of hardness of water and a gasoline C is developed. The fuel C whilst exceeded via lime water turns it milky. Identify A, B and C.

Salt that is used in bakery product is baking soda or sodium hydrogen carbonate. On heating of baking soda, sodium carbonate is fashioned with evolution of carbon dioxide gasoline.

Sodium carbonate is used to eliminate hardness of water. Another product is carbon dioxide gas that gives lime test wherein it turns lime water milky.

Thus, A = NaHCO3 ; B= Na2CO3 and C=CO2.

39. In one of the commercial procedures for manufacture of sodium hydroxide, a gasoline X is formed as spinoff. The fuel X reacts with lime water to give a compound Y that is used as a bleaching agent in chemical enterprise. Identify X and Y giving the choices chemical equation of the reactions concerned.

Sodium hydroxide is synthetic through electrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium chloride which forms hydrogen and chlorine gas as byproducts. Reaction of chlorine gasoline with lime water paperwork bleaching powder. Thus, X=Cl2 gas and Y=Calcium oxychloride.

The equation for the choices training of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and bleaching powder is given beneath:

40. Fill in the missing information within the given desk.

Name of the choices salt

Name of the choices salt

41. What are strong and susceptible acids? In the following list of acids, separate strong acids from weak acids.

Strong acids ionize absolutely in its aqueous answer therefore such acids incorporates excessive concentration of hydronium ions of their answers. Nitric acid, sulphuric acid are suitable examples of robust acids.

Unlike robust acids, vulnerable acids can not ionize absolutely therefore answer of a vulnerable acid contains a few un-ionized molecules with its ions. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid are vulnerable acids.

In the given acids;

42. When zinc steel is handled with a dilute answer of a strong acid, a gas is developed, which is utilised in the hydrogenation of oil. Name the gas developed. Write the chemical equation of the response worried and also write a check to locate the choices gasoline formed.

Zinc is a metallic element. Metals react with dilute solutions of sturdy acids to shape respective salts and hydrogen gas.

The reaction of zinc with dilute solution of robust acid like HCl bureaucracy zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and hydrogen fuel is advanced.

Zn + 2HCl à ZnCl2 + H2

Hydrogen fuel is utilized in hydrogenation of vegetable oil. It can be tested with the choices help of burning splinter because it burns with a pop sound.

Part C : Long Answer Type

43. In the subsequent schematic diagram for the practise of hydrogen gas as proven inside the figure, what could take place if the subsequent adjustments are made?

a.In region of zinc granules, identical amount of zinc dirt is taken within the test tube.

b.Instead of dilute sulphuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid is taken.

c.In area of zinc, copper turnings are taken.

d. Sodium hydroxide is taken in vicinity of dilute sulphuric acid and the tube is heated.

a.Since zinc dirt has large surface region than zinc granules, so reaction could be faster and hydrogen gas will evolve with extra velocity.

b.Both hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid are sturdy acids so nearly same quantity of fuel is advanced.

c.Copper is a much less reactive metal and does not react with dilute acids so there could be no reaction among copper turnings and dilute HCl.

d.Reaction of zinc with sodium hydroxide paperwork sodium zincate (Na2Zn02) with evolution of hydrogen gasoline.

forty four. For making cake, baking powder is taken. If at domestic your mom uses baking soda in preference to baking powder in cake.

a. How will it affect the choices taste of the choices cake and why?

b. How can baking soda be converted into baking powder?

c. What is the function of tartaric acid introduced to baking soda?

a.Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate which decomposes to sodium carbonate, water and carbondioxide on heating. Baking powder is a aggregate of sodium hydrogen carbonate with tartaric acid which simply reacts with sodium carbonate and neutralizes it. Therefore use of baking soda will supply a bitter flavor to cake because of presence of sodium carbonate.

b.Baking powder is shaped with the aid of addition of tartaric acid to baking soda.

c.Presence of tartaric acid in baking powder neutralizes the impact of sodium carbonate fashioned at some stage in decomposition of baking soda.

45. A metal carbonate X on reacting with an acid gives a gasoline which while surpassed through an answer Y offers the carbonate returned. On the other hand, a fuel G this is acquired at anode during electrolysis of brine is handed on dry Y; it offers a compound Z, used for disinfecting drinking water. Identify X, Y, G and Z.

Here X is calcium carbonate that is a steel carbonate which reacts with dilute HCl to shape calcium carbonate (CaCO3), water and carbon dioxide gas.

When carbon dioxide fuel is surpassed via lime water or calcium hydroxide it offers the calcium carbonate lower back. So Y is calcium hydroxide.

Brine is saturated answer of sodium chloride (NaCl). Electrolysis of brine bureaucracy hydrogen gasoline at cathode and chlorine fuel at anode.

So G is chlorine fuel that’s passed through dry calcium hydroxide, produces bleaching powder, CaOCl2 (Z).

Hence X=Calcium carbonate, Y=Lime water, G= Chlorine gas and Z=Calcium oxychloride or bleaching powder.

46. A dry pellet of a not unusual base B, whilst saved in open absorbs moisture and turns sticky. The compound is likewise a made of chlor-alkali system. Identify B, what type of response happens while B is treated with an acidic oxide? Write a balanced chemical equation for one such solution.

Here not unusual base B is sodium hydroxide which is hygroscopic and absorbs moisture from the choices environment. It is likewise shaped as a product of chlor-alkali manner. Chlor-alkali process is electrolysis of brine (saturated answer of sodium hydroxide) that bureaucracy aqueous sodium hydroxide with hydrogen gas and chlorine fuel.

Reaction of sodium hydroxide with acidic oxide like carbon dioxide bureaucracy salt (sodium carbonate) and water.

forty seven. A sulphate salt of organization 2 detail of the periodic desk is a white, soft substance, which can be molded into exceptional shapes by means of making its dough. When this compound is left in open for someday, it will become a solid mass and cannot be used for molding functions. Identify the choices sulphate salt and why does it display any such behaviour? Give the choices response worried.

The sulphate salt which can be molded into different shapes by way of making its dough is calcium sulphate hemi-hydrate. It is commonly known as plaster of Paris. Here, molecules of calcium sulphate percentage one molecule of water.

Because of presence of water crystallization, it’s far tender.

It comfortably reacts with atmospheric moisture and bureaucracy hard stable mass. This solid mass is referred to as gypsum. Conversion of plaster of Paris to gypsum may be represented as given below:

48. Identify the choices compound X on the idea of the reactions given below. Also, write the choices call and chemical formulae of A, B and C.

X have to be a compound which paperwork water with acids. It manner it ought to be a base which reacts with acids to shape salt and water. This base additionally reacts with zinc steel and releases hydrogen fuel. So it need to be NaOH.

Chapter three : Metals and Non-Metals

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the subsequent assets is commonly not proven by using metals?

b. sonorous in nature

Metallic luster is the choices feature characteristic of metals this is because of presence of unfastened electrons.

2. The capacity of metals to be drawn into skinny cord is called :

Ductility can be described as the choices assets of metals to drawn in skinny wires via application of force on them.

three. Aluminium is used for making cooking utensils. Which of the following properties of aluminium are answerable for the same?

(i) properly thermal conductivity

(ii) true electric conductivity

(iv)excessive melting point

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (i) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iii)

d. (i) and (iv)

Some of the maximum common houses of Aluminium are good thermal conductivity, malleability, mild weight and high melting point which make it beneficial for making cooking utensils.

4. Which one of the following metals do not react with bloodless as well as hot water?

Na, Ca and Mg are reactive metals and speedy react with water. At room temperature, the response of Fe could be very gradual but red hot iron reacts with steam to shape Fe3O4 with hydrogen gasoline.

3Fe + 4H2O à Fe3O4 + 4H2

five. Which of the following oxide of iron would be acquired on extended response of iron with steam?

d. Fe2O3 and Fe3O4

Prolong heating of pink warm iron with steam form Fe3O4 with hydrogen fuel.

3Fe + 4H2O à Fe3O4 + 4H2

6. What occurs when calcium is handled with water?

a. (i) and (iv)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (i) and (ii)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Calcium reacts less violently with water producing the bubbles of hydrogen gas in conjunction with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).

7. Generally metals react with acids to provide salt and hydrogen fuel. Which of the following acids does no longer give hydrogen gasoline on reacting with metals (except Mn and Mg)?

d. All of those

Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent so it does no longer provide hydrogen gas with metals (except Mn and Mg). As hydrogen gasoline is formed within the response HNO3 oxidizes this hydrogen to water.

eight. The composition of aqua regia is

a. Dil.HCl : Conc.HNO3 3:1

b. Conc.HCl : Dil.HNO3 3:1

c. Conc.HCl : Conc.HNO3 three:1

d. Dil.HCl : Dil.HNO3 three:1

Aqua-regia is a mixture of concentrated HCl and concentrated HNO3 in three:1 ratio.

9. Which of the subsequent are not ionic compounds?

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (iii) and (iv)

d. (i) and (iii)

Ionic compounds are fashioned through mixture of cation and anions. HCl and CCl4 are shaped via same sharing of electrons between atoms in the molecule. Here HCl is a polar covalent compound and CCl4 is a non-polar covalent compound.

10. Which one of the following houses is not typically exhibited with the aid of ionic compounds?

a. solubility in water

b. electric conductivity in strong nation

c. excessive melting and boiling points

d. electrical conductivity in molten country

Ionic compounds can conduct strength in molten or aqueous state due to presence of loose ions. In strong nation, no loose or cellular ions are to be had for accomplishing electricity.

11. Which of the following metals exist of their native country in nature?

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iv)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Gold and silver (Au and Ag) also are called Noble metals as they’re much less reactive and exist in their native nation in nature.

12. Metals are refined via the usage of special strategies. Which of the subsequent metals are refined by means of electrolytic refining?

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (i) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iii)

d. (ii) and (iv)

Alkali metals are very reactive so cannot refine with the choices assist of electrolytic refining process.

thirteen. Silver articles come to be black on prolonged publicity to air. This is because of the choices formation of

d.Ag2S and Ag3N

Silver metals reacts with atmospheric sulphur compounds like H2S gas and form black coating of Ag2S over surface.

14. Galvanisation is a technique of shielding iron from rusting with the aid of coating it with a thin layer of

Zinc metal is used to shield iron floor from rusting.

15. Stainless steel could be very useful fabric, for our existence. In stainless-steel, iron is blended with

a. Ni and Cr

b. Cu and Cr

c. Ni and Cu

d. Cu and Au

Stainless steels are shaped with the addition of high share of chromium and nickel to iron.

sixteen. If copper is stored open in air, it slowly loses its shining brown floor and profits a green coating. It is due to the formation of

Copper reacts with wet carbon dioxide within the air and form green coloration basic copper carbonate.

17. Generally metals are stable in nature. Which one of the following metals is determined in liquid kingdom at room temperature?

At room temperature, mercury is discovered in liquid state.

18. Which of the subsequent metals are received with the aid of electrolysis of their chlorides in molten country?

Usually alkali and alkaline earth metals can be extracted by using electrolysis in their salts in molten nation.

19. Generally non-metals are not lustrous. Which of the subsequent non-metals is lustrous?

Iodine is a non-metal with lustrous look and exists in solid country.

20. Which one of the following four metals might be displaced from the solution of its salts via other three metals?

Least reactive metallic can be displaced from its solution by way of other three metals. Silver is least reactive out of given four metals.

21. 2ml every of conc. HCl, HNO3 and a combination of conc.HCl and conc.HNO3 in the ratio of three:1 have been taken in check tubes categorized as A,B and C. A small piece of steel was put in each test tube. No alternate passed off in take a look at tubes A and B however the metal were given dissolved in take a look at tube C. The metallic could be

A combination if conc. HCl and conc. HNO3 in the ratio of three:1 forms aqua-regia that may dissolve gold and platinum.

c. a homogeneous aggregate

d. a heterogenous combination

A homogeneous mixture of various metals or a non-metals is called as alloy.

23. An electrolytic cell consists of

(i) positively charged cathode

(ii) negatively charged anode

(iii) definitely charged anode

(iv) negatively charged cathode

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (iii) and (iv)

c. (i) and (iii)

d. (ii) and (iv)

There is a positivity charged anode and negatively charged cathode in an electrolytic cell.

24. During electrolytic refining of zinc, it receives

a. deposited on cathode

b. deposited on anode

c. deposited on cathode as well as anode

d. stays within the solution

During electrolytic refining the choices pure zinc metal is deposited on cathode.

25. An element A is smooth and may be cut with a knife. This could be very reactive to air and can’t be stored open in air. It reacts vigorously with water. Identify the detail from the following.

Sodium is a smooth, reactive alkali metallic.

26.Alloys are homogeneous combinations of a metallic with a metal or non-metallic. Which a few of the following alloys contain non-metals as one of its constituents?

27. Which many of the following statements is incorrect for magnesium metallic?

a. It burns in oxygen with a astonishing white flame.

b. It reacts with cold water to form magnesium oxide and evolves hydrogen gasoline.

c. It reacts with warm water to shape magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gasoline.

d. It reacts with steam to form magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gas.

Magnesium metallic does no longer react with cold water however reacts with both warm water and steam to shape magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen fuel.

28. Which a few of the following alloys incorporate mercury as one among its constituents?

29. Reaction between X and Y paperwork compound Z. X loses electron and Y profits electron. Which of the following residences isn’t always shown by using Z?

a. Has high melting factor

b. Has low melting factor

c. Conducts power in molten state

d. Occurs as strong

Since Z is formed from X and Y via complete switch of electrons therefore Z should be ionic compound which ought to have excessive melting point and conductivity in molten kingdom and normally occur as solids.

30. The electronic configurations of three elements X, Y and Z are X-2, eight : Y-2,8,7 and Z-2,8,2. Which of the subsequent is correct?

a. X is a steel

b. Y is a steel

c. Z is a non-steel

d. Y is a non-metal and Z is a steel

Metals have 1 or 2 electrons in their valence shell whereas non-metals have 5-7 valence electrons. Here X has octet configuration so it should be a noble gas.

31. Although metals form simple oxides, which of the subsequent metals form an amphoteric oxide?

Some of the metals like Aluminium metallic paperwork amphoteric oxide (Al2O3) which can behave like acid in addition to base.

32. Generally non-metals are non-conductors of strength. Which of the subsequent is a superb conductor of strength?

Graphite is one of the allotropes of carbon which indicates layers arrangement of carbon atoms. The fourth valence electron of each carbon is free to transport that makes it good conductor of strength.

33. Electrical wires have a coating of an insulating material. The material, typically used is

d. all may be used

An insulating substance is required to coat the electric wire together with PVC.

34. Which of the subsequent non-metals is a liquid?

Bromine is a non-metal which exists in liquid nation.

35. Which of the subsequent can go through a chemical reaction?

According to reactivity series, more reactive metallic can displace less reactive metallic from its compound. Fe is more reactive compare to copper so it may displace copper from its compound, copper sulphate. The reactivity order for given metals are;

Mg < Zn < Fe < Pb < Cu

36. Which one of the following figures efficiently describes the process of electrolytic refining?

In electrolytic refining process, impure steel forms the anode that’s positive electrode while natural metallic forms the cathode that’s terrible electrode. In the given photograph, apparatus for electrolytic refining of copper steel is being shown wherein copper from impure anode dissolves into the answer and Cu2+ ions from the solution are deposited on the choices cathode.

Part B : Short Answer Type

37. Iqbal handled a lustrous, divalent detail M with sodium hydroxide. He found the choices formation of bubbles in response mixture. He made the choices equal observations whilst this element was dealt with with hydrochloric acid. Suggest how may be pick out the choices produced fuel. Write chemical equations for both the reactions.

The divalent detail have to be a few metal which releases hydrogen gas with each acid and bases. Bring a burning splinter close to the choices gasoline, it’s going to burn with a pop sound, subsequently it should be hydrogen fuel. The divalent element might be zinc. Chemical equations for each the reactions are;

38. During extraction of metals, electrolytic refining is used to acquire pure metals.

a. Which material will be used as anode and cathode for refining of silver metal by way of this method?

b. Suggest a appropriate electrolyte also.

c. In this electrolytic cell, in which can we get pure silver after passing electric powered cutting-edge?

39. Why ought to the choices metals sulphides and carbonated be converted to steel oxides in the procedure of extraction of metallic from them?

Usually steel sulphides and carbonates are converted to metallic oxides inside the system of extraction of steel. This is due to the fact metal oxides can effortlessly lessen to steel with the assist of a few common reducing agent like coke.

Ores of metallic may be converted to metal oxides with the assist of calcination or roasting which depends on the nature of ore. For instance, metal carbonate can convert to metal oxide via calcinations while roasting is used for metallic sulphide.

forty. Generally when metals are treated with mineral, acids. Hydrogen gas is liberated however whilst metals (besides Mn and Mg) are handled with HNO3, hydrogen is not liberated, why?

Unlike other acids, response of nitric acid is little one of a kind because it is a superb oxidizing agent. As hydrogen fuel is shaped throughout the choices reaction of nitric acid with metals, acid reacts with hydrogen fuel and converts it to water. And nitric acid receives decreased to NO2 or NO or N2O.

41. Compound X and aluminium are used to enroll in railway tracks.

a. Identify the choices compound X

b. Name the choices reaction

c. Write down its reaction

forty two. When a steel X is handled with cold water, it gives a fundamental salt Y with molecular formula XOH (molecular mass = 40) and liberates a gasoline Z which effortlessly catches fire. Identify X, Y and Z and additionally write the reaction concerned.

Given molecular components of Y = XOH

And molecular mass of Y = forty

So atomic mass of metallic X might be:

Metal with atomic mass 23 is sodium and response of it with cold water will form sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

2Na + 2H2O (cold) à 2NaOH +H2

Hence; X = Sodium (Na), Y= Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Z=Hydrogen gas (H2)

forty three. A non-metal X exists in two exceptional paperwork Y and Z. Y is toughest natural substance, whereas Z is a superb conductor of strength. Identify X, Y and Z.

Different kinds of any element are called as allotropes. Since Y is the choices toughest substances so it should be diamond which is an allotrope of carbon. Hence non-steel X is carbon. Another allotrope of carbon is graphite that’s superb conductor of electricity due to presence of unfastened cellular electrons.

Hence X=Carbon, Y= Diamond and Z=Graphite

forty four. The following reaction takes location when aluminium powder is heated with MnO2.

3MnO2(s) + 4Al(s) 3Mn(I) + 2Al2O3(I) +Heat

45. What are the choices materials of soldier alloy? Which belongings of solder makes it suitable for wedding electric wires?

Solder is a fusible metallic alloy of lead (Pb) and tin(Sn). It carries 40% lead and 60% of Sn metallic.

Solder has a low melting point round 90o C to 450oC in comparison to the choices metals used in forming electrical wires. So, it acts as bridge between steel portions, therefore used for welding electric wires.

46. Metal A that is utilized in thermite process, whilst heated with oxygen gives an oxide B, which is amphoteric in nature. Identify A and B. Write down the reactions of oxide B with HCl and NaOH.

Aluminium (Al) is utilized in thermite technique so steel A is Aluminium. The response of Al with oxygen bureaucracy aluminium oxide Al2O3 which is amphoteric in nature as it could showcase acidic as well as fundamental nature.

4Al(s) + 3O2 (g) à 2Al2O3(s)

Hence, A = aluminium and B=Aluminium oxide

Reactions of aluminium oxide with HCl and NaOH are as given beneath;

Al2O3(s) + 6HCl (a) à 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(I)

Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) à 2NaAlO2(aq) + H2O(I)

forty seven. A metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature is received by way of heating its sulphide within the presence of air. Identify the steel and its ore. Give the reactions concerned.

Mercury is the simplest metal which exists in liquid state at room temperature. It is normally extracted from its sulphide ore, mercury II sulphide or cinnabar (HgS) by using the choices procedure of roasting. Hence;

Metal = Mercury and Ore =Cinnabar

Roasting of ore happens in the presence of air and form steel oxide which in addition reduce to steel.

48. Give the formulae of the choices solid binary compounds that might be formed via the choices combination of following pairs of factors.

a. Mg and N2

b. Li and O2

c. Al and Cl2

d. K and O2

a. ZnCO3 is heated inside the absence of oxygen?

b. A mixture of Cu2O and Cu2S is heated?

50. A non-steel A is an important constituent of our meals and bureaucracy two oxides B and C. Oxide B is toxic while C causes worldwide warming.

a. Identify A, B and C.

b. To which group of periodic table does A belong?

Hence ; A= carbon, B= carbon monoxide and C=carbon dioxide

51. Give examples every of the metals which might be accurate conductors and relatively bad conductors of warmth respectively.

fifty two. Name one metal and one non-metallic that exists in liquid state at room temperature. Also name two metals having melting factor much less than 310 K.

a. Metal that exists in liquid kingdom at room temperature = Mercury.

b. Non-metallic that exists in liquid state at room temperature = Bromine.

c. Metals having melting point much less than 310K = Caesium (28.5o) and Gallium (29.76o C)

53. An detail A reacts with water to form a compound B that is utilized in white washing. The compound B on heating paperwork an oxide C which on treatment with water gives lower back B. Identify A, B and C and provide the choices reactions concerned.

The compound this is utilized in white wash is calcium hydroxide. So the detail need to be calcium that reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide. Heating of calcium hydroxide paperwork calcium oxide which again converts to hydroxide with the choices reaction of water.

Hence A = Ca, B =Ca(OH)2, C=CaO

fifty four. A steel M does now not unlock hydrogen from acids however reacts with oxygen to offer a black colour product. Identify M and black coloured product and also give an explanation for the response of M with oxygen.

Because of much less reactivity, copper steel does now not release hydrogen gas with acid.

Cu(s) + HCl à No reaction

Hence metal M is copper.

Reaction of copper with oxygen on extended heating to form a black substance copper II oxide.

2Cu(s) + O2(g) à 2CuO(s)

fifty five. An detail paperwork an oxide A2O3 that’s acidic in nature. Identify A as a metallic or non-metallic.

Metals typically shape fundamental oxides like BaO, MgO, Na2O and so forth. Unlike metals, non-metals generally tend to shape acidic oxides.

As we flow from left to proper within the periodic table, the choices acidity of oxides increases. So the detail which bureaucracy acidic oxide must be non-metallic detail.

The method for oxide is A2O3 approach the charge on detail should be +3 or detail should have three valence electrons that is boron and formulation for oxide could be B2O3.

56. A solution of CuSO4 was saved in an iron pot. After few days the choices iron pot turned into determined to have some of holes in it. Explain the choices motive in time period of reactivity. Write the choices equation of the choices response concerned.

In reactivity series, iron is positioned above copper. So we are able to say that iron is extra reactive examine to copper and it could displace copper from its compounds. When copper sulphate solution is located in an iron pot, iron reacts with copper sulphate and shape iron sulphate with copper.

So the blue shade of copper sulphate solution fade of mild green due to formation of iron sulphate and holes are produced at locations where iron metals has reacted.

Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) à FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Part C : Long Answer Type

57. A non steel A which is the largest constituent of air, while heated with H2 in 1:three ratio within the presence of catalyst (Fe) offers a fuel B. On heating with O2 it offers an oxide C. If this oxide is handed into water within the presence of air, it offers an acid D which acts as a sturdy oxidising agent.

a. perceive A, B , C and D

b. To which institution of the periodic desk does this non-metallic belongs?

Ammonia reacts with water to give nitric oxide which further oxidized to form NO2.

Reaction of oxides with water in the presence of air effects nitric acid.

4NO2 + H2O +O2 à 4HNO3

Hence A=nitrogen, B=ammonia, C=nitrogen dioxide and D=nitric acid.

fifty eight. Give the stairs worried in the extraction of metals of low and medium reactivity from their respective sulphide ores.

(i)Roasting- Heating of steel sulphide inside the presence of excess of air to shape steel oxide.

(ii)Reduction- Metal oxide can be reduced to metallic in the presence of lowering agent like coke or aluminium at excessive temperature.

fifty nine. Of the choices three metals X, Y and Z, X reacts with cold water, Y with warm water and Z with steam most effective. Identify X, Y and Z and additionally arrange them so as of growing reactivity.

X reacts with cold water so it have to be very reactive like alkali metals, sodium. Sodium reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

2Na + 2H2O à 2NaOH + H2

Y metal can react with hot water so it should be little less reactive than X. So Y can be magnesium (Mg) which reacts with hot water to shape magnesium hydroxide.

Mg + 2H2O à Mg(OH)2 + H2

Metal which reacts with steam must be iron that bureaucracy iron III oxide with steam.

3Fe + 4H2O à Fe3O4 + 4H2

Hence the choices increasing order of reactivity of given metals is;

Z (Fe) < Y(Mg) < X(Na)

Chapter 4 : Carbon and its Compounds

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1. Carbon exists inside the environment within the shape of

a. only carbon monoxide

b. carbon monoxide in traces and carbon dioxide

c. best carbon dioxide

Carbon exists best inside the shape of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) in air.

2. Which of the subsequent statements are generally correct for carbon compounds? These

(i) Are top conductors of electricity.

(ii) Are bad conductor of energy.

Carbon having four valence electrons paperwork only covalent compounds which show off much less intermolecular points of interest and do no longer have any unfastened electrons to hold electric powered current. Therefore, those are poor conductors of energy.

3. A molecule of ammonia (NH3) has

a. most effective unmarried bonds

b. simplest double bonds

c. simplest triple bonds

d. double bonds and one unmarried bond

Ammonia is a covalent molecule in which middle nitrogen atom is bonded with three hydrogen atoms via unmarried covalent bond.

4. Buckminsterfullerene is an allotropic form of

Buckminsterfullerene is an allotrope of carbon with 60 carbon atoms that are joined collectively in a spherical shape.

five.Which of the following are correct structural isomers of C4H10?

a. (i) and (iii)

b. (ii) and (iv)

c. (i) and (ii)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Structural isomers have equal molecular formula but exclusive determine chain of carbon atoms in the molecule.

6. In the subsequent response, alkaline KmnO4 acts as:

KmnO4 acts as oxidising agent because it oxidized CH3CH2OH to CH3COOH by addition of oxygen atom.

7. Oils on treating with hydrogen within the presence of palladium or nickel catalyst form fats. This is an instance of

It is hydrogenation reaction means addition of hydrogen to double bonds of unsaturated compounds found in oil.

8. In which of the following compounds -OH is the choices practical organization ?

Compounds with -OH functional institution are ended with suffix -ol.

C4H9 – OH or CH3 – CH2 – CH2 -CH2 -OH

9. The soap molecule has a

a. hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail

b. hydrophobic head and a hydrophilic tail

c. hydrophobic head and a hydrophobic tail

d. hydrophilic head and a hydrophilic tail

A soap molecule carries an extended hydrocarbon component and a small ionic part of -COONa institution. Hydrocarbon chain is hydrophobic or water repelling while ionic head is hydrophilic or water attracting institution.

10. Which of the following is the best illustration of electron dot shape of nitrogen?

Nitrogen molecule is a covalent molecule wherein two nitrogen atoms are bonded via triple covalent bond with one lone pair of electrons over every nitrogen atom.

eleven. Structural formulation of ethyne is

General components for alkyne is CnH2n-2. There need to be as a minimum one triple bond among carbon atoms. With two carbon atom, the choices viable shape would be H-C=C-H.

12. Identify the unsaturated compounds from the following.

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (ii) and (iv)

c. (iii) and (iv)

d. (ii) and (iii)

Alkene and alkyne are unsaturated hydrocarbon as they have double and triple covalent bonds among carbon atoms.

13. Chlorine reacts with saturated hydrocarbons at room temperature within the

a. absence of sunlight

b. presence of daylight

c. presence of water

d. presence of hydrochloric acid

Chlorine indicates photochemical substitution reactions with saturated hydrocarbons that occurs within the presence of mild.

14. In the choices soap micelles

a. the ionic end of soap is on the floor of the cluster whilst the carbon chain is in the interior of the cluster.

b. ionic end of cleaning soap is inside the indoors of the cluster and the choices carbon chain is out of the choices cluster.

c. each ionic cease and carbon chain are inside the indoors of the cluster.

d. both ionic give up and carbon chain are on the choices outdoors of the cluster.

A micelle is a spherical aggregation of soap molecules in water wherein hydrocarbon ends are directed toward the choices centre and ionic ends are directed outwards.

15. Pentane has the choices molecular formulation C5H12. It has

Pentane contains 4 C-C bonds and twelve C-H covalent bonds.

sixteen. Structural system of benzene is

Benzene is handiest aromatic compound with six carbon atoms and six H atoms. There are three alternatives pi bonds in ring of carbon atoms.

17. Ethanol reacts with sodium and bureaucracy two merchandise. There are

a. sodium ethanoate and hydrogen

b. sodium ethanoate and oxygen

c. sodium ethoxide and hydrogen

d. sodium ethoxide and oxygen

Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium ethoxide(C2H5ONa ) together with liberation of hydrogen fuel.

18. The accurate structural method of butanoic acid is:

Butanoic acid is a carboxylic acid with four carbon atom and one -COOH group at terminal.

19. Vinegar is a solution of :

a. 50% – 60% acetic acid in alcohol

b. five%-eight% acetic acid in alcohol

c. five% – 8% acetic acid in water

d. 50% – 60% acetic acid in water

Vinegar is a five% – 8% aqueous solution of acetic acid.

20. Mineral acids are stronger acids than carboxylic acids due to the fact

(i) mineral acids are absolutely ionised.

(ii) carboxylix acids are absolutely ionised.

(iii)mineral acids are partly ionised

(iv) carboxylic acids are partly ionised.

a. (i) and (iv)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (i) and (ii)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Mineral acids like nitric acid, sulphuric acid are stronger than carboxylic acid as they can ionize one hundred% in their solution.

21. Carbon bureaucracy 4 covalent bonds by way of sharing its 4 valence electrons with four univalent atoms, eg. Hydrogen. After the formation of four bonds, carbon attains the choices electronic configuration of

Electronic configuration of carbon is two, four subsequently it incorporates four valence electrons and after formation of 4 covalent bonds, it’ll get 4 extra electrons via them so overall could be 10 electrons that is atomic quantity for Neon gas.

22. The accurate electron dot structure of a water molecule is

In water molecule, middle oxygen atom carries lone pairs of electrons and form two single covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms.

23. Which of the following is not a immediately chain hydrocarbon?

A branched chain hydrocarbon should include a few facet chains that are bonded with parent carbon chain.

24. Which many of the following are unsaturated hydrocarbons?

a. (i) and (iii)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iv)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons have multiple covalent bonds (double or triple bond) like alkene and alkyne.

25. Which of the subsequent does not belong to the same homologous collection?

Successive members of same homologous collection are differ via -CH2 unit. CH4, C2H6, C3H8 belong to identical series this is of alkane and fluctuate through -CH2 unit however C4H8 does now not belong to this.

26. The name of the compound, CH3-CH2-CHO is :

Compound includes three carbon atoms so prop- could be root phrase and -CHO practical institution so suffix could be -al. Hence call might be propane +al= propanal.

27. The heteroatoms present in CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH2CL are:

a. (i) and (ii)

b. (ii) and (iii)

c. (iii) and (iv)

d. (i) and (iv)

Atoms other than C and H in natural compound are referred to as as heteroatoms.

28. Which of the subsequent represents saponification response?

Saponification reaction is reaction of ester with base like NaOH to shape the choices parent alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid.

29. The first member of alkyne homologous series is:

Alkyne is an organic compound with triple covalent bond between carbon atoms therefore first member of homologous collection should have atleast two carbon atoms with one triple bond this is ethyne

Part B : Short Answer Type

30. Draw the electron dot structure of ethyne and additionally draw its structural system.

Ethyne is a hydrocarbon with molecular components C2H2. Here two carbon atoms are bonded together by way of a triple covalent bond and one hydrogen atom is bonded with each carbon atom via a unmarried covalent bond. Hence the choices electron dot structure of ethyne molecule may be represents as:

Structural system of ethyne is:

31. Write the choices names of the subsequent compounds.

32. Identify and name the practical corporations present inside the following compounds.

Name of compound : Alcohol

Name of compound : Carboxylic acid

Name of compound : Ketone

Name of compound : Alkene

33. A compound X is formed by means of the reaction of a carboxylic acid C2H4O2 and an alcohol within the presence of some drops of H2SO4. The alcohol an oxidation with alkaline KmnO4 followed via acidification gives the same carboxylic acid as used in this reaction. Give the names and structures of

c. The compound x. Also write the choices response.

34. Why detergents are higher cleaning retailers than soaps? Explain.

Detergents and soaps each are cleansing marketers but detergents may be used even in hard water while soaps cannot use in difficult water.

Soap bureaucracy an insoluble precipitate with calcium and magnesium ions discovered in difficult water. This precipitate is known as as scum which sticks to the choices cloths and makes the cleansing even extra difficult.

On the choices contrary, detergents have charged ends and do no longer shape insoluble precipitates with calcium and magnesium ions.

The cleaning movement of detergents is more potent than soaps. They are extra soluble in water therefore it’s miles handy to use them evaluate to soaps.

35. Name the choices useful corporations present within the following compounds.





36. How is ethene prepared from ethanol? Give the choices reaction involved in it.

This conversion is viable through dehydration reaction which occurs within the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid or concentrated phosphoric (V) acid, H3PO4 at 160o C.

When methanol is entered in our body, it is metabolized in the liver and shape formaldehyde which in addition transformed to formate. Formate is critical for survival because it acts as constructing block for lots biomolecules but high stages of it is able to motive toxicity.

Formaldehyde also reacts with dwelling cells and may cause coagulation of protoplasm. Excess of methanol in our frame additionally impacts the choices optic nerve and might purpose blindness.

38. A gasoline is developed when ethanol reacts with sodium. Name the choices gasoline developed and also write the choices balanced chemical equation of the reaction worried.

When ethanol reacts with sodium metal, it bureaucracy sodium ethoxide (C2H5O-Na+) and hydrogen fuel is released. The response is as follows.

So the gas is hydrogen gas that is evolved at some point of the reaction.

39. Ethene is fashioned while ethanol at 443K is heated with extra of concentrated sulphuric acid. What is the position of sulphuric acid in this reaction? Write the balanced chemical equation of this response.

Conversion of ethanol to ethene is a dehydration reaction which happens within the presence of excess of concentrated sulphuric acid. Here focused sulphuric acid acts as dehydrating agent and put off water molecule from ethanol to form ethene.

Hence concentrated sulphuric acid acts as a dehydrating agent as it gets rid of water molecule.

40. Carbon, group (14) element in the periodic desk, is known to form compounds with many elements. Write an instance of a compound fashioned with

a. chlorine (institution 17 of periodic desk)

b. oxygen (group sixteen of periodic table)

forty one. In electron dot shape, the valence shell electrons are represented by way of crosses or dots.

a. The atomic quantity of chlorine is 17. Write its digital configuration.

b. Draw the electron dot structure of chloride molecule.

forty two. Catenation is the choices capacity of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the choices equal factors. It is exhibited by both carbon and silicon. Compare the ability of catenation of the two factors. Give reasons.

Both carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are placed in 14th institution of the periodic desk and have 4 valence electrons of their valence shell.

Both of them can form 4 covalent bonds with different elements and can also show off the phenomenon of catenation.

Catenation is the choices self linkage property of atoms because of which they can bond with other comparable atoms to form long chain compounds. It depends on the bond electricity of atoms.

Out of carbon and silicon, carbon exhibits catenation tons more than silicon. This is because of smaller size of carbon and high bond strength of C-C bonds compare to Si-Si bonds. Hence carbon shows catenation to a greater extent than silicon.

43. Unsaturated hydrocarbons incorporate more than one bonds between the two c-atoms and show addition response. Give the check to differentiate ethane from ethene.

Ethene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon because it incorporates a double covalent bond among two carbon atoms. Presence of unsaturation or double covalent bond can be distinguished with the assist of bromine answer in CCl4. It is an orange shade answer which indicates shade change after addition in ethene answer.

The orange colour disappears because of formation of the choices colourless ethylene dibromide (CH2Br – CH2Br). It is an addition reaction of ethene because of presence of double covalent bond within the molecule.

CH2 = CH2 + Br à CH2Br – CH2Br

Ethane is a saturated hydrocarbon and can’t show this check. It burns with a clean flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with yellow flame and plenty of black smoke.

44. Match the choices reactions given in Column I with the choices call given in Column II.

The matching of Column I and Column II is as given

forty five. Write the structural formulae of all of the isomers of hexane.

Hexane can showcase five isomers with molecular system C6H14.

46. What is the position of metal or reagents written on arrows within the given chemical reactions?

Part C : Long Answer Type

forty seven. A salt X is formed and a fuel is advanced whilst ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. Name the salt X and the choices fuel developed. Describe an activity and draw the diagram of the equipment to prove that the advanced gasoline is the one which you have named. Also, write the chemical equation of the response involved.

Ethanoic (CH3COOH) acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NAHCO3) to form sodium ethanoate(CH3COONa), water and carbon dioxide gasoline. Hence salt X is sodium ethanoate and the gas developed is CO2. The chemical equation of the reaction concerned is:


Activity for gazing the choices gasoline advanced in above response:

Set up the apparatus and take sodium hydrogen carbonate in check tube. Add ethanoic acid to it and observe brisk effervescence of carbon dioxide (CO2) gasoline. Now skip this gasoline thru freshly prepared lime water (Ca(OH)2). It will flip milky due to the formation of insoluble calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Ca(oh)2 + CO2 à CaCO3 + H2O

forty eight. a. What are hydrocarbons? Give examples.

b. Give the choices structural variations among saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples every.

c. What is practical organization? Give examples of 4 distinctive purposeful organizations.

Examples of 4 practical companies are

Name of practical organization

Formula of useful organization

49. Name the response that’s normally used inside the conversion of vegetable oils of fats. Explain the response involved in detail.

The response this is used to convert vegetable oil to fats is called as hydrogenation response. vegetable oils incorporate unsaturated hydrocarbons that may exhibit addition response with hydrogen to form saturated hydrocarbons or fat. The response occurs in the presence of steel catalyst like finely divided nickel or palladium at 200C and paperwork saturated vegetable fats.

The hydrogenation response is an business technique for the manufacturing of vanaspati ghee from vegetable oil.

Here, R is any alkyl group which typically consists of a big range of carbon atoms in vegetable oils.

50. a. Write the components and draw electron dot shape of carbon tetrachloride.

b. What is saponification? Write the choices response concerned in this method.

51. Esters are candy smelling substances and are used in making perfumes. Suggest a few pastime and the choices response worried for the instruction of an ester with properly labelled diagram.

Take a check tube and add 1ml ethanol and 1 ml glacial acetic acid with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. Now warmness the answer in water bath for at least 5 minutes. Pour the choices content material into a beaker containing water and scent the choices aggregate. Sweet odor of ester would be observed.

Reaction of ethanoic acid and ethanol inside the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid paperwork ethyl ethanoate with water.


fifty two. Draw the viable isomers of the compound with molecular system C3H6O and additionally give their electron dot structures.

Five isomers possible for the molecular method C3H6O are listed below:

Chapter five : Periodic Classification of Elements

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Upto which detail, the regulation of octaves became determined to be relevant?

Newlands’ law of octaves could be applicable for factors having low atomic loads upto 40 u.

2.According to Mendeleev’s periodic law, the elements have been arranged within the periodic desk inside the order of

a.Increasing atomic range

b.Decreasing atomic wide variety

c.Increasing atomic hundreds

d.Decreasing atomic loads

The Mendeleev’s periodic law is an association of factors in growing order in their atomic loads as Mendeleev’s periodic regulation states that, the bodily and chemical properties of elements are a periodic characteristic in their atomic masses.

3.In Mendeleev’s periodic desk, gaps have been left for the choices elements to be discovered later. Which of the subsequent factors discovered a place within the periodic desk later?

Germanium detail discovered an area inside the periodic desk later in the place of Eka-silicon in Mendeleev’s periodic table.

4.Which of the subsequent assertion about the contemporary periodic table are wrong?

(i) The elements in the modern-day periodic table are arranged on the idea of their lowering atomic numbers.

(ii) The elements inside the modern-day periodic desk are organized on the premise of their growing atomic hundreds.

(iii)Isotopes are positioned in adjoining organization(s) within the periodic desk.

(iv)The elements within the current periodic desk are arranged on the basis in their increasing atomic variety.

The contemporary periodic desk is tabular arrangement of factors in growing order of their atomic number consequently isotopes are placed at identical position.

5.Which of the following statements about the present day periodic desk is accurate?

a.It has 18 horizontal rows referred to as intervals.

b.It has 7 vertical columns rows referred to as intervals.

c.It has 18 vertical columns referred to as companies.

d.It has 7 horizontal rows referred to as organizations.

There are 18 vertical columns, called agencies and 7 horizontal rows in Modern periodic desk.

6.Which of the choices given elements A, B, C, D and E with atomic range 2,3,7,10 and 30 respectively belong to the identical duration?

a. A,B,C

b. B,C,D

c. A,D,E

d. B,D,E

Second duration of Modern Periodic Table includes factors from atomic range 3 to ten.

7.The factors A, B, C, D and E have atomic range 9,eleven, 17, 12 and 13 respectively. Which pair of factors belongs to the choices same group?

a. A and B

b. B and D

c. A and C

d. D and E

Elements having the identical variety of valence electrons belong to the choices equal institution.

Given elements and their electronic configurations are written underneath:

As, each A and C elements have the choices identical quantity of valence electrons which is 7, subsequently they belong to the same group, i.e. seventeenth institution of periodic desk.

8.Where might you locate the choices element with electronic configuration, 2, eight in the present day periodic table?

Element with electronic configuration 2, 8 has octet configuration so need to be an inter fuel which is placed in organization 18.

nine.An element that is an vital constituent of all organic compounds belong to

Carbon is an vital element for all organic compounds and belong to institution 14.

10. Which of the subsequent is the outermost shell for elements of period 2?

The elements of second period include shells; K and L shell.

eleven.Which one of the following elements show off most range of valency electrons?

As the choices institution quantity increases, number of valence electrons also will increase.

12. Which of the following gives the perfect growing order of the choices atomic radii of O, F and N ?

a. O,F,N

b. N,F,O

c. O,N,F

d. F,O,N

From left to proper in the current periodic desk, the choices atomic radii decrease with increasing the atomic range. The atomic number of F, O and N are nine, eight and seven respectively so atomic radius will decrease from N to F.

thirteen. Which a number of the following factors has the largest atomic radii?

Na and Mg belong to equal length whereas Na and K are in the equal organization. I a group from top to bottom, atomic radius increase whereas it decreases in duration from left to right. Hence the choices order might be K> Na> Mg and K> Ca>Mg.

14.Which of the following factors could lose an electron effortlessly?

Na and K are alkali metals whereas Mg and Ca are alkaline earth metals. Alkali metals are model electropositive compare to alkaline earth metals and may effortlessly lose electrons. Out of Na and K, K will without problems lose electrons because of bigger length and less digital attraction.

15.Which of the subsequent elements does now not lose an electron effortlessly?

Metals can without problems lose electrons and exhibit electropositive nature while non-metals have tendency to just accept electrons and showcase electronegative nature. Na, Al and Mg are metals while F is a non-metal.

sixteen.Which of the subsequent are the choices characteristics of isotopes of an detail?

(i) Isotopes of an detail have same atomic masses.

(ii) Isotopes of an detail have same atomic range.

(iii)Isotopes of an element display identical physical homes.

(iv)Isotopes of an element show identical chemical properties.

Isotopes are the choices atoms of the choices same detail that have same atomic quantity however exclusive number of neutrons hence their atomic hundreds are specific.

17.Arrange the following elements in the order of their decreasing metallic person Na, Si, Cl, Mg, Al.

a. Cl > Si > Al > Mg > Na

b. Na > Mg > Al > Si > Cl

c. Na > Al > Mg > Cl > Si

d. Al > Na > Si > Ca > Mg

As we circulate from left to right in periodic desk, metal characters decreases and non-steel characters increases. Here Na, Si, Cl, Mg, Al belong to equal length so we have to test their function in length.

18.Arrange the following elements in the order in their increasing non-steel character Li, O, C, Be, F.

a. F < O < C < Be < Li

b. Li < Be < C < O < F

c. F < O < C < Be < Li

d. F < O < Be < C < Li

These all elements belong to identical period wherein non-metallic characters increases from left to right.

19.What form of oxide could Eka-aluminium form?

Eka-aluminium changed into later recognized as Gallium with valency of 3. Hence the oxide would be E2O3.

20. Three elements B, Si and Ge are

d.Metals, non-metallic and metalloid respectively

The factors boron (B), silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) showcase intermediate homes of metals and non-metals consequently they’re referred to as as metalloids. These factors are placed in among metals and non-metals as zigzag line to split them.

21. Which of the following factors will shape an acidic oxide?

a. An detail with atomic quantity 7

b. An element with atomic wide variety three

c. An element with atomic wide variety 12

d. An element with atomic variety 19

Formation of acidic oxides is individual of non-metals. Here factors with atomic wide variety 7 is non-steel that is nitrogen. Results of all are metals.

22. The element with atomic wide variety 14 is hard and forms acidic oxide and a covalent halide. To which of the subsequent categories does the detail belong?

d. Left-hand side detail

Atomic range 14 is for Silicon detail that is a metalloid and showcase properties of both metals and non-metals. It has 4 electrons in its valence shell so tends to form covalent acidic oxide like non-metals.

23. Which one of the following depict the ideal representation of atomic radius (r) of an atom?

a.(i) and (ii)

b.(ii) and (iii)

c.(iii) and (iv)

d.(i) and (iv)

The distance between the choices centre of the choices nucleus and the choices outermost shell referred to as atomic radius.

24.Which one of the following does now not growth whilst moving right down to organization of the periodic table?

d.Number of shells in an element

Elements of the same organization have same range of valence electrons consequently valency will remain equal.

25.On moving from left to proper in a length inside the periodic table, the scale of the atom

c. Does not alternate notably

d. First decreases after which will increase

As we move from left to proper within the length of periodic desk, the choices number of shell stays equal but atomic variety will increase. So the choices digital attraction over valence electrons additionally increases that decreases the atomic radius.

26.Which of the following set of factors is written so as in their growing steel person?

a. Be, Mg, Ca

b. Na, Li, K

c. Mg, Al, Si

d. C, O, N

As we flow down in a set, steel nature will increase. Be, Mg and Ca belong to identical group that is organization 2 of Modern Periodic Table.

Part B : Short Answer Type

27. The 3 elements A, B and C with similar homes have atomic hundreds X, Y and Z respectively. The mass of Y is about equal to the choices average mass of X and Z. What is such an arrangement of detail called as? Give one example of such a hard and fast of elements.

This is an instance of Dobereiner’s traids which is a group of three elements. In Dobereiner’s traids the choices atomic loads of elements are arranged in the sort of manner that the choices atomic mass of center element is sort of the mean of atomic loads of first and 1/3 elements.

For eg: Ca, Sr and Ba is one of the Dobereiner’s triads. Here, atomic hundreds of Ca, Sr and Ba are 40, 88 and 137 respectively. Atomic mass of Sr this is 88 is nearly the choices suggest of atomic loads of Ca and Ba.

Atomic mass of Sr = 40 +137 = 88.five

28.Elements have been arranged within the following collection on the idea in their growing atomic masses.

F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K

a.Pick two units of factors that have comparable houses.

b.The given sequence represents which regulation of type of factors?

a.In this sequence, the factors are arranged in growing order in their atomic masses. According to Newlands’ regulation of octaves, every 8th element will show similar homes as that of the choices first detail. Hence F and Cl, Na and K will show comparable homes.

Therefore, Set I is F and Cl.

And, Set II is Na and K.

b.In the choices given collection, factors are organized in increasing order in their atomic loads and every eighth element indicates comparable houses. So, it represents the choices Newland law of regulation of octaves.

29. Can the subsequent businesses of factors be labeled as Dobereiner’s triad?

a.Na, Si, Cl

b.Be, Mg, Ca

Atomic mass of Be 9; Na 23; Mg 24; Si 28; Cl 35; Ca 40

Explain via giving cause.

For a collection to be Dobereiner’s triad, the atomic mass of center element should be average of atomic loads of the first and the third factors.

30.In Mendeleev’s periodic desk, the factors had been arranged within the increasing order in their atomic masses. However, cobalt with atomic mass of fifty eight.93 amu become located earlier than nickel having an atomic mass of 58.seventy one amu. Give cause for the same.

In Mendeleev’s periodic desk, the choices reasons for putting cobalt (Co) earlier than nickel (Ni) although its atomic mass is higher than that of nickel, are:

31.’Hydrogen occupies a unique role in modern-day periodic desk’, justify the declaration.

The function of hydrogen is specific in Modern Periodic Table. This is because:

32.Write the formulae of chlorides of Eka-silicon and Eka-aluminium, the choices elements expected by way of Mendeleev.

Eka-silicon is identified as germanium(Ge) that’s located in organization 4 of Mendeleev’s periodic desk. The valency of germanium is 4 so the chemical formula for chloride have to be GeCl4.

Eka-aluminium became later identified as gallium (Ga). It is placed in institution 3 of the choices Mendeleev’s periodic table. Hence the valence of gallium is 3 and the choices method of chloride could be GaCl3.

33.Three factors A, B and C have 3, 4 and 2 electrons respectively in their outermost shell. Give the institution range to which they belong inside the modern-day periodic table. Also, deliver their valencies.

The organization number for elements can be diagnosed as 10+ number of valence electrons Element A with three valence electrons have to display valency as three and should belongs to organization 13. The elements of institution thirteen are B, Al, Ga, In or TI.

Element B carries four valence electrons so it should be from group 14 (10+four) and valency need to be 4. The detail B can be C, Si, Ge, Sn or Pb. Similarly Element C has two valence electrons for this reason have to be from institution 2. So detail C can be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba or Ra.

34.If an element X is placed in organization 14, what is going to be the choices method and the nature of bonding of its chloride?

Elements of group 14 have 4 valence electrons and valency might be 4. Group 14 carries metals and non-metals with metalloids.

As there are four valence electrons so it need to involve in covalent bonding to complete its octet configuration. So the choices chemical method of chloride of detail X might be XCl4.

Since chloride is fashioned with the aid of sharing of electrons therefore the nature of the choices chloride of element X can be covalent.

35.Compare the radii of species X and Y. Give reasons on your solution.

a.X has 12 protons and 12 electrons.

b.Y has 12 protons and 10 electrons

Here X has equal range of electrons and protons, therefore it is a neural atom whereas Y incorporates 12 protons and 10 electrons so there are alternatives 2 protons greater giving Y price of +2. The electronic configurations of the two species may be expressed as:

The atomic length of a cation is usually smaller than a impartial atom containing equal number of protons this is due to the fact cation has less wide variety of electrons due to which the choices nuclear points of interest are more on electrons in cation inflicting its length to be smaller than that of the neutral atom.

Hence, atomic radius of Y is smaller than that of X.

36. Arrange the following factors in increasing order in their atomic radii

a. Li, Be, F, N

b. Cl, At, Br, I

a.Li, Be, F and N belong to identical period of contemporary periodic table. As we circulate left to right inside the periodic desk, the atomic radii of elements decreases due to high atomic price and equal variety of shell. Thus the atomic radii of Li, Be, F and N increase within the order : F < N < Be < Li.

b.Cl, At, Br and I belong to a few group of periodic table that is institution 17. As we pass down in a group, the atomic radii of elements growth due to increasing the choices wide variety of shell. Thus, atomic radii of Cl, At, Br and I boom in the order : Cl < Br< I < At.

37.Identify and call the choices metals out of the subsequent elements whose digital configurations are given underneath.

Elements with having 1 to three valence electrons are usually metals while elements with four or extra valence electrons are typically non-metals or metalloids.

Therefore, from given digital configurations, metals are:

38. Write the choices components of the choices product shaped when the detail A (atomic number 19) combines with the element B (atomic number 17). Draw its digital dot structure. What is the nature of the emblem formed?

The electronic configuration of element A with atomic quantity 19 would be 2, 8,8,1. Hence it’s miles potassium. Since, it has only one valence electron therefore it must be a steel.

The digital configuration of detail B could be 2, eight, 7 with quantity of valence electrons being 7. So, it should be a non-metallic that is chlorine.

A metallic and a non-steel usually combine through ionic bond because metals have tendency to lose electrons and form cations whereas non-metals can be given electrons to form anions.

Potassium and chlorine will shape potassium chloride(KCl).

The electron dot shape of KCl is as given below.

39.Arrange the following factors inside the growing order of their steel individual Mg, Ca, K, Ge, Ga.

The association of given factors inside the Modern Periodic desk is indexed below.

We realize that metal individual decreases from left to right in the periodic desk. In the given factors, except for Mg, last elements are placed in equal length so the metallic man or woman will lower from K to Ge and order of metallic character could be;

Ge < Ga < Ca < K

Now, as we move down in a group, metal nature of factors increases. So, Ca is more metal than Mg. Similarly, Mg will be much less metallic than K due to the fact in period, steel nature decreases from left to right. Hence the choices increasing order of metallic individual could be;

Ge < Ga < Mg < Ca < K

40.Identify the factors with the subsequent belongings and set up them in increasing order of their reactivity.

a.An detail that’s a smooth and reactive steel.

b.The metallic that’s an crucial constituent of limestone.

c.The metal which exists in liquid state at room temperature.

a.Alkali metals like sodium and potassium are gentle and reactive.

b.The chemical formula of limestone is CaCO3 subsequently the important constituent of limestone would be calcium (Ca).

c.Mercury is the most effective steel which exists in liquid nation at room temperature.

Since reactivity of metals decreases from left to right in the institution consequently the order of reactivity of Na, Ca and Hg might be;

forty one.Properties of the factors are given beneath. Where would you find following factors in the periodic table?

a. A soft metallic stored beneath kerosene.

b.An element with variable (a couple of) valency stored below water.

c.An detail which is tetravalent and bureaucracy the premise of organic chemistry.

d.An element that’s an inert fuel with atomic wide variety 2.

e.An element whose skinny oxide layer is used to make other elements corrosion resistant by way of the choices manner of “anodising”.

a.Because of excessive reactivity of alkali metals, they are commonly kept under kerosene. Alkali metals are located in institution 1 and starts offevolved from duration 2 to 7.

b.The detail with variable valency and need to be saved in water is phosphorus. It indicates variable valency of 3 and five and is reactive closer to air and now not water. It is placed in group 15 and duration 3 of periodic desk.

c. Carbon bureaucracy the premise of natural compounds. It exhibits tetra-valency as it has 4 valance electrons. It is positioned in institution 14 and length 2 of Periodic table.

d. Helium is the choices lightest inert gas with atomic variety 2. It is positioned in organization 18 and period 1 of periodic table.

e. Aluminium steel is used to make other factors corrosion resistant by the choices manner of “anodising”. The oxide layer is of Al2O3. The atomic range of aluminium is thirteen and it is positioned in organization 13 and duration three of periodic table.

Part C : Long Answer Type

42. An element is located in 2nd group and 3rd length of the periodic table burns in presence of oxygen to shape a basic oxide.

a. Identify the detail

b. Write the choices electronic configuration

c. Write a balanced equation while it burns inside the presence of air.

d. Write a balanced equation when this oxide is dissolved in water.

e. Draw the electron dot shape for the choices formation of this oxide.

a.Given element is located in institution 2 so it have to be alkaline earth metallic. The alkaline earth metallic in length 3 in magnesium (Mg).

b.The atomic number of Mg is 12, and electronic configuration is:

c.Magnesium burns inside the presence of air to shape magnesium oxide(MgO). It is a simple oxide.

2Mg(s) + O2(g)à 2MgO(s)

d.Basic oxide of magnesium; MgO is dissolved in water to form magnesium hydroxide.

2MgO(s) + 2H2O (I) à 2Mg(OH)2 (aq)

e.Magnesium oxide is an ionic compound in which Mg exists as Mg+2 ion and oxygen as O-2 ion. The electron dot structure for the formation of magnesium oxide is given below.

forty three. An element X (atomic quantity 17) reacts with an element Y (atomic variety 20) to form a divalent halide.

a. Where within the periodic desk are factors X and Y located?

b. Classify X and Y as metallic (s), non-metallic(s) or metalloid(s).

c.What could be the nature of oxide of element Y? Identify the choices nature of bonding inside the compound shaped.

d.Draw the choices electron dot shape of the divalent halide.

a.The atomic number of element X is 17 and electronic configuration 2, eight, 7. There are 7 valence electrons so it have to be placed in institution 17 and period three. It is chlorine. The atomic number of Y is 20 and electronic configuration is 2, eight, 8, 2. So there are 2 valence electrons and it must be a part of organization 2nd and 4th duration as there are alternatives 4 shells. The detail Y is calcium.

b.Chlorine (detail X) has 7 valence electrons therefore it requires one electron to get the choices octet configuration. So it has tendency to simply accept one electron and shape anion. Therefore it is a non-metal. Element Y has two valence electrons which can effortlessly lose to get the strong digital configuration of the choices nearest inert gas. Hence it is a steel.

c.Calcium is a steel and it will shape basic oxides like calcium oxide(CaO) need to be primary in nature. Here calcium is steel and oxygen is non-metallic therefore the choices bonding between metals and non-metals have to be ionic in nature.

d.The chemical components of divalent halide of calcium and chlorine could be CaCl2. Electron dot structure for the formation of calcium chloride is given beneath.

44. Atomic quantity of some factors are given beneath.

a.Identify the choices elements.

b.Identify the institution range of these factors within the periodic table.

c.Identify the intervals of these factors inside the periodic desk.

d.What will be the digital configuration for every of these elements?

e.Determine the valency of those factors.

45.Complete the following crossword puzzle(determine).

1.An element with atomic quantity 12.

three.Metal used in making cans and member of group 14.

four.A lustrous non-steel which has 7 electrons in its outermost shell.

2.Highly reactive and smooth steel which imparts yellow colour when subjected to flame and is stored in kerosene.

five.The first detail of 2d length.

6.An detail that’s used in making florescent bulbs and is 2d member of organization 18 inside the contemporary periodic desk.

7. A radioactive element which is the closing member of halogen circle of relatives.

8.Metal that is an critical constituent of metal and bureaucracy rust when exposed to moist air.

9.The first metalloid in contemporary periodic table whose fibres are utilized in making bullet-evidence vests.

46. a. In this ladder(discern) symbols of elements are jumbled up. Rearrange these symbols of elements inside the growing order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table.

b. Arrange them within the order in their group additionally

a.The symbols of elements in growing order of their atomic numbers are:

H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca.

b.The symbols of elements in growing order of their group numbers are as follows.

forty seven. Mendeleev expected the existence of sure elements now not known at that time and named of them as Eka-silicon and Eka-aluminium.

a. Name the choices factors which have taken the choices location of those elements.

b.Mention the institution and the choices length of these elements in the cutting-edge periodic desk.

c. Classify those factors as metals, non-metals or metalloids.

d.How many valence electrons are present in every one in all them?

a.Eka-silicon became later diagnosed as Germanium (Ge) and Eka-aluminium became taken as Gallium (Ga).

b. Germanium (Ge) – Group 14, length 4

Gallium (Ga) – Group 13, duration 4

c.Gallium is a metal while Germanium is a metalloid.

d.Gallium is placed in 13th group so there should be 13-10=three valence electrons.

Similarly germanium is placed in group 14 so there ought to be 14-10=four valence electrons.

48. a.Electropositive nature of the choices detail increases down the organization and reduces throughout the duration.

b.Electronegativity of the choices detail decreases down the choices group and will increase across the period.

c.Atomic length will increase down the choices organization and decreases throughout a period(left to proper).

d.Metallic person increases down the organization and decreases throughout a period.

On the basis of the above developments of the choices periodic desk, solution the following approximately the choices elements with atomic variety three to 9.

a.Name the choices most electropositive detail among them.

b.Name the maximum electronegative element.

c.Name of the choices element with smallest atomic size.

d.Name the choices element that is a metalloid.

e.Name the element which shows most valency.

Elements from atomic variety 3 to nine are listed underneath:

a.Most electropositive detail – Lithium(Li)

b.Most electronegative detail – Fluorine

c. Element with smallest atomic size – Fluorine

d. Metalloid element – Boron

e. Element with maximum valency – Carbon

forty nine.Which organization of elements may be located in Mendeleev’s periodic desk with out demanding the original order? Give motives.

Since noble gases are inert due to absolutely crammed octet configuration. Therefore, the presence can’t have an effect on the present order of any institution of periodic table.

These nobel gases are found in extremely low concentrations in our environment and commonly do not shape any chemical compound with other factors.

During the choices improvement of periodic table through Mendeleev, these gases had been now not recognised. That is the reason, after their discovery they have been located in a brand new institution at the choices proper maximum cease of periodic table and named as 0 group or 18th institution.

50. Give an account of the procedure followed via Mendeleev for the classification of elements. How did he arrive at “periodic regulation”?

Mendeleev purposed the choices relation among atomic masses of factors and their properties. He tested that physical and chemical homes of elements are duration function of their atomic hundreds. He arranged all acknowledged 63 factors according to their atomic masses.

He examined the choices compounds shaped by elements hydrogen and oxygen. He used those factors because they readily form extraordinary compounds with other elements like hydride and oxides.

The chemical homes of hydrides and oxides have been used to decide the choices chemical homes of various elements and that again used for his or her classification. He recorded residences of all 63 factors and coupled the factors which showcase same chemical residences. Later he arranged elements on the premise in their similarities in chemical residences and determined that most of the choices factors were arranged in order in their increasing atomic hundreds.

In this association, he also discovered the choices periodic recurrence of factors with comparable physical and chemical houses. He formulated the choices periodic law which states that the choices homes of factors are the choices periodic features in their atomic masses.

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the subsequent statements approximately the choices autotrophs is inaccurate?

a. They synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water inside the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

b. They keep carbohydrates in the shape of starch.

c. They convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates in the absence of daylight.

d. They constitute the first trophic stage in meals chains.

Autotrophs acquire the desired carbon and strength requirements from carbon dioxide and daylight. They integrate carbon dioxide and water to form carbohydrates. The primary photosynthetic pigment is chlorophyll, which allows to entice the daylight to carry out the choices light reaction of photosynthesis to synthesise carbohydrates. Since autotrophs are the choices simplest organisms that can restore the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds, these organisms occupy first trophic stage in meals chain and serve as a source of meals and strength for organisms of higher trophic levels.

2.In which of the subsequent corporations of organisms, food cloth is damaged down outside the choices body and absorbed?

a. Mushroom, inexperienced flora, Amoeba

b. Yeast, mushroom, bread mould

c. Paramecium, Amoeba, Cuscuta

d. Cuscuta, lice, tapeworm

Yeast, mushroom and bread mold are saprophyte which derive their nutrition from dead organisms. For the choices motive, those organisms secrete digestive enzymes on their substratum to break down the choices complicated food fabric into the choices less difficult ones. These digested meals substances are then absorbed with the aid of them.

three.Select the right declaration.

a. Heterotrophs do not synthesize their personal food.

b. Heterotrophs utilize solar strength for photosynthesis.

c. Heterotrophs synthesize their own meals.

d. Heterotrophs are capable of converting carbon dioxide and water carbohydrates.

Heterotrophs are the organisms that can’t synthesize their personal meals and depend upon available organic or inorganic compounds to fulfil their strength necessities. Eg. All animals.

4. Which is the perfect series of elements in human alimentary canal?

a. Mouth à Stomach à Small gut à Oesophagus àLarge intestine

b. Mouth à Oesophagusà Stomach à Large intestineà Small intestine

c. Mouth à Stomach à Oesophagusà Small intestineàLarge gut

d. Mouth à Oesophagusà Stomach Small intestineàLarge intestine

Human alimentary canal includes organ of digestion which are namely, in collection, mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, big gut and anus.

5. If salivary amylase is lacking inside the saliva, which of the following events inside the mouth hollow space could be affected?

a. Proteins breaking down into amino acids

b. Starch breaking down into sugars

c. Fats breaking down into fatty acids and glycerol

d. Absorption of nutrients

Amylase is the choices enzyme which facilitates in primary digestion of starch handiest. Digestion of starch by salivary amylase into maltose begins in mouth. Oesophagus then pushes the choices meals into stomach. It does not carry out digestion in any respect. Pancreatic amylase also digests last starch into maltose sugars. Intestinal maltase contains out final chemical digestion of maltose into glucose molecules.

6. The inner lining of belly is included by one of the following from hydrochloric acid. Choose the ideal one.

The gastric glands of belly produce gastric juice, which contains pepsinogen, HCl, and mucus. HCl impart extraordinarily acidic pH to stomach which help within the similarly digestion of food. The mucus in gastric juice enables defend the belly wall from corrosive effect of hydrochloric acid.

7. Which part of alimentary canal receives bile from the choices liver?

Bile is secreted by way of liver and is saved in gall bladder from wherein it enters the small intestine via not unusual duct.

8. A few drops of iodine solution were introduced to rice water. The answer had been brought to rice water. The solution turned blue-black in coloration. This shows that rice water includes

Presence of starch in an answer turns brought iodine drops in blue black shade. Hence, the blue-black color of rice water confirms presence of starch.

nine. In which a part of the choices alimentary canal food is eventually digested?

Digestion of food begins in mouth by way of salivary amylase. From here it enters into the stomach via oesophagus. Gastric juice of stomach digests the protein a part of meals. Pancreatic amylase, trypsin and lipase as well as intestinal peptidases and maltase carry out the very last chemical digestion of meals in small intestine. The less difficult substances formed by means of chemical digestion are then absorbed by means of small intestinal villi.

10. Choose the feature of the choices pancreatic juice from the subsequent

a. Trypsin digests proteins and lipase carbohydrates

b. Trypsin digests emulsified fats and lipase proteins

c. Trypsin and lipase digest fats

d. Trypsin digests proteins and lipase digests emulsified fats droplets

Pancreatic juice includes sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes amylase, trypsin, lipase and nucleases. Pancreatic amylase contains out digestion of starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase breaks down fat droplets already emulsified by using bile salts.

11. When air is blown from mouth into a take a look at-tube containing lime water, the choices lime water grew to become milky because of the presence of

Carbon dioxide fuel turns lime water milky. Since the choices exhaled air is carbon dioxide rich, whilst air is blown from mouth into test tube, the lime water became milky.

12. Which of the subsequent statements are true approximately breathing?

I. During inhalation, ribs move inward and diaphragm is raised.

II. In the choices alveoli, alternate of gases takes place, i.e., oxygen form alveolar air diffuses into blood and carbon dioxide from blood into alveolar air.

III. Haemoglobin has greater affinity for carbon dioxide than oxygen.

IV. Alveoli will increase floor vicinity for alternate of gases.

a.I and IV

b.II and III

c.I and III

d.II and IV

During inhalation, diaphragm contracts and lowers while the choices rib cage movements upward and outward.

thirteen. Which is the suitable series of air passage for the duration of inhalation?

a. Nostrils à Larynx Pharynx à Trachea à Lungs

b. Nasal passage à Trachea à Pharynx à Larynx à Alveoli

c. Larynx à Nostrils à Pharynx àLungs

d. Nostrils à Pharynxà Larynx à Trachea àAlveoli

During inhalation, the choices air is drawn through the choices nostrils into nasal passage. From there, air enters into pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and finally to the alveoli.

14. During respiration exchange of gases take vicinity in

a. Trachea and larynx

b. Alveoli of lungs

c. Alveoli and throat

d. Throat and larynx

An alveolar sac is made up of simple squamous epithelium and is surrounded by using blood capillaries. Thin walls and accelerated floor area want the gaseous change which takes region among the choices oxygen wealthy alveolar air and the carbon dioxide wealthy blood inside the capillaries at alveolar surface. Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar and capillary partitions to go into the choices bloodstream, at the same time as carbon dioxide diffuses from the choices blood throughout these partitions to go into the alveoli.

15. Which of the subsequent statements are genuine approximately coronary heart?

I. Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from extraordinary parts of body even as proper atrium receives deoxygenated blood from lungs.

II. Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to specific body parts whilst right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs.

III. Left atrium transfers oxygenated blood to right ventricle which sends it to exclusive frame elements.

IV. Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from unique parts of the choices body at the same time as left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to one of a kind components of the choices frame.

c.II and IV

d.I and III

The left ventricle pumps blood into the choices aorta which in flip grants it to the choices essential body areas and organs which makes assertion III wrong. The anterior vena cava collects deoxygenated blood from the pinnacle, chest and fingers and enters the choices right atrium even as the inferior vena cava collects blood from the choices decrease body regions. Both venae cavae skip the choices deoxygenated blood to the proper atrium which makes announcement I wrong. Blood from proper atrium enters proper ventricle and pulmonary arteries convey deoxygenated blood from proper ventricle to lungs for oxygenation, this makes declaration II and IV accurate.

sixteen. What prevents backflow of blood inside the coronary heart in the course of contraction?

a. Valves in coronary heart

b. Thich muscular walls of ventricles

c. Thin walls of atria

d. All of those

Valves make certain that blood does no longer flow backwards when the atria or ventricles settlement. Semilunar valves, the choices valves present between ventricles and their connected vessels, serve to save you the choices backflow of blood to ventricles from their respective attached vessels. Likewise, atrioventricular (AV) valve among atrium and ventricle directs the waft of blood and prevents any backflow into atria.

17. Single flow, i.e blood flows via the choices heart simplest once in the course of one cycle of passage through the body, is exhibited with the aid of

a. Labeo, chameleon, salamander

b. Hippocampus, exocoetus, anabas

c. Hyla, rana, draco

d. Whale, dolphin, turtle

The examples and the relation of animal institution and coronary heart are as fishes have two chambered heart and exhibit single movement whilst 3 chambered coronary heart of amphibian and reptiles and 4 chambered coronary heart of birds and mammals exhibit double movement. In given options, C consists of all fishes which makes it correct solution.

18. In which of the following vertebrate groups, coronary heart does no longer pump oxygenated blood to exclusive elements of the choices frame?

a. Pisces and amphibians

b. amphibians and reptiles

Fishes have chambered heart and show off unmarried stream in which deoxygenated blood is pumped to gills. Gills are the organs of gaseous change by way of diffusion. The oxygenated blood from gills is then pumped to exclusive body elements and the deoxygenated blood from frame components is then carried to heart. The 3 chambered heart of amphibian and reptiles and 4 chambered heart of birds and mammals showcase double flow and pump oxygenated blood to frame.

19. Choose the ideal announcement that describes arteries.

a. They have thick elastic walls, blood flows underneath high pressure; accumulate blood from exceptional organs and produce it lower back to the heart.

b. They have skinny walls with valves inside, blood flows beneath low strain and deliver blood far from the heart to numerous organs of the choices frame.

c. They have thick elastic partitions, blood flows below low pressure convey blood from the choices heart to diverse organs of the body.

d. They have thick elastic partitions with out valves inner, blood flows beneath high stress and convey blood away from the choices coronary heart to one of a kind parts of the choices body.

Arteries are the valveless blood vessels which serve to move the blood away from the choices heart to diverse body components. The thick strong elastic partitions of arteries withstand the excessive stress of blood coming from heart.

20. The filtration devices of kidneys are known as

Nephrons are the structural and purposeful filtration unit of a kidney that serve in filtration, reabsorption and secretion. Ureters are small muscular tubes that expand from the choices kidney and bring urine into the choices urinary bladder. The urethra is a canal that contains urine from bladder and expels it out of body. Neurons are structural and purposeful unit of worried machine.

21. Oxygen liberated for the duration of photosynthesis comes from

Photosynthesis is the manner wherein carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to repair the atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds (carbohydrates).

The predominant photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll and accent pigments chl b, chl c and carotenoids etc trap the daylight to perform the light reactions of photosynthesis. The mild response of photosynthesis includes splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen to provide ATP and lowering marketers which in flip serve as energy supply to drive the second one section of photosynthesis during which carbohydrate synthesis takes region.

The left ventricle pumps blood into the choices aorta which in turn branches and can provide oxygenated blood to the essential body areas and organs. The oxygen is consumed in cell respiration and the carbon dioxide produced throughout breathing enters into blood.

The anterior vena cava collects deoxygenated blood from the pinnacle, chest and fingers enters the choices proper atrium while the choices inferior vena cava collects blood from the lower frame regions. Both vena cava skip the deoxygenated blood to the choices right atrium. Thus, blood from tissues is wealthy in carbon dioxide.

Deoxygenated blood from proper atrium enters right ventricle and pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from proper ventricle to lungs for oxygenation.

23. Which of the following is an incorrect announcement?

a. Organisms develop with time

b. Organisms should restore and keep their shape

c. Movement of molecules does now not take area amongst cells

d. Energy is important for life strategies.

A cell is structural and purposeful unit of a living organisms. Each cell is made up of molecules. Several chemical reactions associated with existence procedures take location in mobile and the choices molecules exhibit movement all through those reactions. This makes options incorrect declaration and correct solution.

The boom is fundamental man or woman of dwelling organisms. Various chemical adjustments, biological response reason wear and tear or organelles and modify the organized shape of residing organisms. The living organisms need to repair and keep their systems the use of the strength produced by using cellular respiratory of meals.

24. The inner (cellular) energy reserve in autotrophs is

Autotrophs are the organisms that use light as source of electricity, carbon dioxide as leader carbon supply and water as electron donor to restoration the atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds. The fundamental photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a and accessory pigment chl b, chl c and carotenoids entice the daylight to carry out the choices mild reactions of photosynthesis. The mild response of photosynthesis produces ATP and decreasing agents which in flip serve as electricity source to power the second one section of photosynthesis throughout carbohydrate synthesis takes vicinity.

The carbohydrates which are not without delay ate up via vegetation are shop as starch(homopolysaccharide of D-glucose).

Glycogen serves as predominant stored shape of carbohydrates in animals.

25.The commencing and final of the choices stomatal pore relies upon upon

c. Water in shield cells

d. Concentration of CO 2 in stomata

Stomata are the tiny pores present at the leaf floor. Each stomatal pore is surrounded by using shield cells that help in stomatal commencing driven by way of turgidity of protect cells. When water flows in shield cells from epidermal cells, guard cells come to be turgid and stomata are opened. Removal of water from shield cells makes them flaccid and stomata are closed.

The simplest epidermal cells with erratically thickened partitions and chloroplasts are the choices guard cells; they’re kidney fashioned in dicots and dumbell fashioned in monocots.

ii.Nitrates and nitrites

Answer: None of those

Plants absorb nitrogen from the choices soil inside the form of nitrate and ammonium. All different nitrogen assets ought to be broken down into either of those paperwork to be absorbed through flora.

Chemical digestion of meals starts inside the mouth. Digestion of starch by using salivary amylase takes region in mouth. Oesophagus serves to push the food into belly best. No digestion takes vicinity here. Gastric juice of stomach digests the protein part of meals. Pancreatic amylase, trypsin and lipase in addition to intestinal peptidases and maltase carry out chemical digestion of food in small intestine. The simpler substances shaped via chemical digestion are then absorbed small intestinal villi. Large gut is the choices organ of water and salts reabsorption from undigested food and elimination of remaining undigested material out of body. This makes option C accurate solution.

i.Pyruvate may be transformed into ethanol and carbon dioxide by using yeast.

ii.Fermentation takes vicinity in cardio bacteria.

iii.Fermentation takes region in mitochondria.

iv.Fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration.

Yeast is a unicellular organism which consists of out ethanol fermentation. The first segment is wreck down of one molecule of glucose into molecules of pyruvate which occurs in cytoplasm. Due to confined oxygen availability, pyruvate remains in cytoplasm in which pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes carry out the second one phase of anaerobic breathing and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Respiration is the only source of electricity in muscle tissues. During intense physical activity, limited oxygen supply do now not support the aerobic respiration and muscle mass perform lactic acid fermentation of pyruvate to meet the choices electricity call for.

Pyruvic acid to lactic acid formation is an anaerobic process which occurs in cytoplasm best.

Part B : Short Answer Type

a.Photosynthesis is the choices procedure wherein carbon dioxide as leader carbon supply and water as electron donor to restoration the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds ie. Conversion of mild power into chemical energy.

b.Autotrophs are the choices organisms that use light as supply of electricity, carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to restoration the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds.

c. Chloroplasts is a double membrane bound organelle that comprise equipment for photosynthesis.

d. Each stomatal pore is surrounded by means of two defend cells that help in stomatal opening driven via turgidity of defend cells.

e. Heterotrophs organisms that can’t make their personal meals from inorganic materials and depend upon different organisms for their food.

f. Pepsin is a protein digestive enzyme.

True. Respiration is the method of oxidation of food substances that release carbon dioxide; it takes vicinity for the duration of the day. Photosynthesis is the choices process of fixing the atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds with launch of oxygen gasoline as by way of product. Photosynthesis takes place for the duration of day in presence of sunlight handiest. Hence, flora launch oxygen at some stage in day only even as carbon dioxide is released during night.

Each stomatal pore is surrounded via defend cells that assist in stomatal starting driven by means of turgidity of guard cells. The protect cells are the best epidermal cells with inconsistently thickened walls and chloroplasts. When water flows in protect cells from epidermal cells, defend cells turn out to be turgid and stomata are opened. Loss of water from shield cells makes them flaccid and stomata are closed.

Respiration and photosynthesis are the two important tactics for plant life. The plant saved in mild would be capable of produce oxygen, required for respiratory, by way of the choices system of photosynthesis and might stay longer. The one stored in dark would die as soon as the field turns into filled with carbon dioxide gas produced by means of respiration.

Respiration is the choices procedure of oxidation of meals materials that release carbon dioxide it takes places all through the choices day. Photosynthesis is the choices technique of solving the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds with launch of oxygen gasoline as by means of product. Photosynthesis takes area at some stage in day in presence of daylight most effective.

The CO2 released in the course of respiration is absorbed by vegetation for photosynthesis in day causing internet released of oxygen handiest. If a plant is releasing carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen in the course of the choices day, it method that both charge of photosynthesis is simply too sluggish to count balance the discharge CO2 by using respiration or photosynthesis isn’t taking vicinity at all.

Gills are the choices organ of gaseous exchange in fishes as they have chambered coronary heart and coronary heart pump the choices deoxygenated blood to gills. Rich in blood capillaries, those gills function surface for exchange as CO2 and oxygen among deoxygenated blood and surrounding. As they may be taken out of water, gills are now not able to absorb oxygen inflicting its dying.

Autotrophs are the organisms that use light as source of energy, carbon dioxide as leader carbon source and water as electron donor to fix the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds. Heterotrophs are the organisms that rely upon available organic compounds and cannot perform the choices photosynthesis.

Presence of photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll and carotenoids allow autotrophs to lure the sunlight to carry out the mild reactions of photosynthesis. Heterotrophs lack these pigments.

Since autotrophs are the handiest organisms that could restore the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds, those organisms occupies first trophic level in meals chain and serve as source of meals and electricity for organisms of higher trophic ranges. Heterotrophs occupy the choices higher trophic level and feature as clients.

Need of nutrition for an organism is for:

Green flowers are autotrophs are that use light as supply of strength, carbon dioxide as leader carbon source and water as electron donor to repair the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds. The carbohydrates which aren’t immediately consumed by vegetation are saved as starch.

Since autotrophs are the only organisms that could repair the choices atmospheric carbon dioxide into natural compounds, those organisms occupy first trophic level in meals chain and function supply of meals and power for all other organisms of better trophic ranges.

Hence in absence of these flora, complete functioning of entire environment will come to hault because of loss of food and energy supply for purchasers (herbivores, carnivores and omnivores)

Coating of vaseline will make the choices leaves impervious to gases and water. This will result in unfavourable effect on it due to the fact

The cardio respiration differ from anaerobic respiration is as

Complete breakdown of meals in presence of oxygen

Incomplete breakdown of meals substances in absence of oxygen

Results in formation of carbon dioxide and water.

Ethanol and carbon dioxide or lactic acids are the choices give up merchandise.

It happens in three steps: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain.

It takes place in steps both of which takes region in cytoplasm handiest.

Huge quantity of power is released because of complete oxidation of glucose.

Less power is released because of incomplete oxidation of glucose.

Words of column A are matched with that of column B as below:

(ii)Translocation of food

(iii) Clotting of blood

The differentiate among an artery and a vein are as below:

Presence of thick elastic, muscular walls with narrow lumen

Have skinny, non-elastic partitions with huge lumen.

Thick partitions allow them to face up to better blood pressure as blood is pumped directly from heart into arteries.

Since blood is pumped from one of a kind frame parts in vein, blood pressure is tons decrease.

Serve to hold oxygenated blood from coronary heart to other body elements except pulmonary artery.

Serve to hold deoxygenated blood from all frame parts to coronary heart except pulmonary veins.

Presence of valves prevents backflow of blood.

Leaves indicates following adaptions for photosynthesis

Herbivores derive their vitamins from plants and vegetation product which in flip make cellulose important aspect of their weight loss plan. Since cellulose digestion is an extended method and is achieved by intestinal ruminant bacteria found in intestine of herbivores, entire digestion of cellulose want the choices food to live for longer time in intestine. Presence of longer intestine serves the choices reason and lets in the choices food to stay for longer length to facilitate proper digestion of cellulose. Carnivores feed on herbivores and subsequently cellulose is not a part of their weight-reduction plan which in turn reasons no need of longer intestine.

The gastric glands of stomach produce gastric juice, which includes pepsinogen, HCl, and mucus. HCl impart pretty acidic pH to belly which in flip supports conversion of inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin.

Mucus performs an essential function and protects the lining of stomach in opposition to erosion from hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach. In absence of mucus, HCl will motive erosion and ulcer in belly lining.

47.What is the choices significance of emulsification of fats?

Fats are huge complicated biomolecules found in shape of big globules which in turn does no longer assist enzymatic motion on them.

Bile is secreted by way of liver and is stored in gall bladder. Ducts from the gallbladder and pancreas be a part of to form commonplace duct that enters the choices duodenum. The small gut gets bile from the gall bladder thru this not unusual duct.

Bile salts perform mechanical digestion of huge fat globules into smaller ones which are then acted upon by intestinal lipase for entire digestion.

48.What reasons movement of meals in the alimentary canal?

Peristalsis is rhythmic contraction of muscular wall of alimentary canal which in flip pushes the choices meals alongside the alimentary canal. Peristalsis starts within the esophagus and keeps in all the organs of the choices alimentary canal.

49.Why does absorption of digested food arise especially within the small intestine?

Absorption of digested meals occurs in particular in small gut due to the fact:

50. Match the phrases of column A with column B.

d.Digestion in meals vacuoles

Words of column A are matched with that of column B as below:

d.Digestion in food vacuoles

fifty one. Why is the price of inhaling aquatic organisms tons quicker than in terrestrial organisms?

Aquatic organisms depend on dissolved oxygen in water whilst terrestrial organisms soak up oxygen air. Since attention of dissolved oxygen is much decrease as compared to that of oxygen found in air, aquatic organisms breathe faster to meet the choices demand oxygen.

Aquatic organisms have equal surface for absorption of oxygen and alternate while terrestrial organisms are at advantage as they have extraordinary organs for breathing and gaseous trade.

fifty two. Why is blood movement in human coronary heart known as double movement?

Human coronary heart has 4 completely separated chambers which permits absolutely separated circuits of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; subsequently the choices call, double movement.

The pulmonary circuit includes glide of blood thru heart-lung-heart while systemic circuit includes coronary heart-rest of the frame-heart. This ensures that left facet of coronary heart receive and pumps handiest oxygenated blood even as the right side gets and pumps most effective deoxygenated blood.

The blood circulated in human heart is called double circulate due to the fact the choices blood passes through the heart twice at some point of one complete cardiac cycle of the choices frame.

53. What is the choices gain of having four chambered coronary heart?

Human coronary heart has 4 absolutely separated chambers which allow two completely separated circuits of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood i.e. double movement.

a.It guarantees entire separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

b. It permits fast pumping of oxygenated blood underneath high stress which is required by energetic endothermic animals to keep the choices consistent frame temperature.

54. Mention the principal activities throughout photosynthesis.

The primary occasions all through photosynthesis are

Absorption of daylight electricity by major and accessory photosynthetic pigments (chl a, b, c and carotenoids)

Oxidation of water into oxygen and hydrogen driven through mild strength and upkeep of released power in shape of ATP and NADPH.

Reduction of CO2 to supply carbohydrates the usage of energy of ATP and NADPH.

fifty five. In every of the subsequent situations what happens to the choices charge of photosynthesis?

b. No rainfall within the vicinity

c. Good manuring in the vicinity

d. Stomata get blocked due to dust

a.Cloudy days will reason the fee of photosynthesis to lower because of the choices low availability of sunlight.

b. No rainfall within the vicinity will motive the choices fee of photosynthesis to decrease because of the low availability of water.

c. Good manuring in the region will motive the rate of photosynthesis to lower due to the stepped forward availability to minerals essential for plant growth and development.

d. Stomata get blocked due to dust will reason the choices rate of photosynthesis to decrease because of the choices disturbed carbon dioxide consumption via stomata.

fifty six. Name the choices strength forex inside the living organisms. When and where is it produced?

ATP is the strength foreign money inside the residing organisms. Cellular respiration is complete oxidation of meals materials into carbon dioxide and water to launch the choices stored electricity. The very last level of mobile respiratory is the choices step smart waft of electrons via or within a membrane from a discounted compound to electron acceptor observed by ATP synthesis. It takes place in inner mitochondrial membrane.

fifty seven. What is commonplace for Cuscuta, ticks and leeches?

Cuscuta ticks and leeches, all are parasites. Parasitism is association of organism in which one is benefitted at the value of different partner.

58. Explain the choices position of mouth in digestion of meals.

a.The enamel serve the characteristic of mechanical digestion with the aid of chewing and grinding.

b.Three pairs of salivary glands in mouth secrete saliva which contain bicarbonate ions and salivary amylase. Salivary amylase starts the chemical digestion of starch into maltose in mouth itself.

c. Tongue serves in mixing of food with saliva.

59. What are the functions of gastric glands gift in the wall of the choices stomach?

The gastric glands of belly produce gastric juice, which incorporate pepsinogen, HCl and mucus.

HCl impart fairly acidic pH to stomach which in flip helps conversion of inactive pepsinogen into lively pepsin.

Mucus performs an crucial position and protects the inner lining of belly against erosion from hydrochloric acid produced within the belly.

Pepsinogen is inactive precursor of pepsin and is first transformed into active form in acidic surroundings of belly to start protein digestion.

60. Match the choices words of column A with column B.

Words of column A are matched with that of column B as beneath:

Part C : Long Answer Type

sixty one.Explain the choices technique of nutrition in Amoeba.

Amoeba follows the choices holozoic type nutrition. Holozoic refers to engulfment of entire/part of plant or animal in liquid or strong nation. The heterotrophic Amoeba engulf the particulate food. The method of obtaining food by way of Amoeba is known as phagocytosis. It is completed as consistent with the subsequent steps:

sixty two. Describe the choices alimentary canal of man.

Human alimentary canal includes organs of digestion that are namely, in series, mouth, oesophagus, belly, small gut, huge intestine and anus.

Mouth hollow space – It is the choices oral cavity inside mouth, containing enamel, tongue and 3 pairs of salivary glands.

Pharynx – The oral cavity opens into the pharynx. It is the choices element where food passage and air passage move each other.

Esophagus – It is a protracted muscular, tube that passes via thoracic hollow space and diaphragm into belly hollow space and incorporates the meals all the way down to the belly by means of peristalsis.

Stomach – The stomach is a thick-walled, J-formed organ present on the left side of the choices abdominal hollow space and is non-stop with the esophagus above and the choices duodenum of the choices small gut below.

Small intestine – The pyrolic valve of belly leads to a tubular structure known as as small intestine. It has 3 divisions, i.e., duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

Large intestine – The ileocecal valve of small gut leads to massive gut, which can be divided into two elements as anterior colon and posterior rectum.

The rectum opens at the anus, which in turn serves as web site of defecation, the expulsion of feces.

sixty three. Explain the manner of breathing in guy.

Breathing in people involves suggestion and expiration which can be defined below:

64. Explain the significance of soil for plant increase.

Soil is important for plant growth due to the motives given below:

sixty five. How do carbohydrates, proteins and fats get digested in human beings?

a.Emulsification of big globules of fat into smaller droplets by means of bile salt.

b.Pancreatic lipase digests the choices emulsified fat globules into glycerol and fatty acids.

c.Glycerol and fatty acids input the choices villi cells wherein they’re rejoined and packaged and lipoprotein droplets earlier than coming into the lacteals.

sixty six. Explain the mechanism of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the choices process involving production of carbohydrates with the aid of the usage of carbon dioxide as a prime carbon source and water as electron donor. Photosynthesis may be divided into levels:

a.Light reactions: Since these reactions can not take location in absence of light, they’re called as mild based reactions or light reactions. It consists of:

b.Dark reaction: Since these reactions do not require daylight and may arise in presence or absence of daylight, they may be termed as darkish reaction or light independent reactions.

67.Explain the 3 pathways of breakdown in residing organisms.

Cellular respiration is the choices technique of breakdown of food materials into less difficult ones to release the saved electricity. On the idea of presence or absence of oxygen, it could arise thru aerobic or anaerobic pathway.

Alcohol fermentation : Due to limited oxygen availability, pyruvate remains in cytoplasm wherein pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes perform the second segment of anaerobic respiratory and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide with limited quantity of power being launched.

Lactic acid fermentation: Due to restrained oxygen availability, pyruvate stays in cytoplasm wherein it’s far damaged down into lactic acid with restrained amount of energy being launched.

68.Describe the glide of blood thru the choices coronary heart of human beings.

Human coronary heart has four completely separated chambers which permit absolutely separated circuits of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; consequently the choices call, double movement.

The pulmonary circuit includes go with the flow of blood via heart-lung-coronary heart while systemic circuit includes heart-relaxation of the body-heart. This guarantees that left side of coronary heart receives and pumps best oxygenated blood at the same time as the choices right facet gets and pump only deoxygenated blood.

Two pulmonary veins come from each lung and pas O2 rich blood to left atrium. The left ventricle pumps blood into the choices aorta which in flip branches and delivers blood to the choices important frame areas and organs. The anterior vena cava collects deoxygenated blood from the head, chest and hands and enters the choices proper atrium even as the inferior vena cava collects blood from the decrease body regions. Both venae cavae pass the choices deoxygenated blood to the right atrium. Blood from proper atrium enters right ventricle and pulmonary arteries deliver deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs for oxygenation.

sixty nine. Describe the system of urine formation in kidneys.

Urine formation takes place inside the kidneys includes the following steps:

Chapter 7 : Control and Coordination

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the subsequent statements is correct about receptors?

a. Gustatory receptors detect taste even as olfactory receptors stumble on scent.

b. Both gustatory and olfactory receptors hit upon odor.

c. Auditory receptors locate smell and olfactory receptors locate flavor.

d. Olfactory receptors locate taste and gustatory receptors scent.

Gustatory receptors are the choices taste receptors which might be present on the surface of tongue in the form of flavor buds. Olfactory receptors help to experience the choices scent and are located over the roof of nasal cavity.

2.Electrical impulse travels in a neuron from

a.Dendriteà Axon à Axonal give up à Cell body

b. Cell body à Dendrite à Axon à Axonal quit

c. Dendrite à Cell frame à Axon à Axonal cease

d. Axonal quit à Axon à Cell body à Dendrite

Dendrite gets indicators from sensory receptors or different neurons. Axon serves to behavior the nerve impulse far from the cellular body.

three.In a synapse, chemical sign is transmitted from

a.Dendritic quit of one neuron to axonal stop of every other neuron.

b. Axon to cell body of the choices ame neuron to axonal cease of every other neuron.

c. Cell frame to axonal stop of the choices same neuron

d. Axonal give up of one neuron to dendritic stop of some other neuron.

Neurotransmitters are launched from axon of 1 neuron to dendrite of subsequent neuron.

four. In a neuron, conversion of electrical sign to a chemical sign occurs at

Neurotransmitters are launched from axonal end of 1 neuron and transmit the electrical sign to dendrite of next neuron.

5. Which is the perfect collection of the choices additives of a reflex arc?

a. Receptors à Muscles à Sensory neuron à Motor neuron àSpinal twine

b. Receptors à Motor neuron à Spinal twine à Sensory neuron àMuscle

c. Receptors à Spinal wire à Sensory neuron à Motor neuron à Muscle

d. Receptors àSensory neuronàSpinal cordà Motor neuron à Muscle

A stimulus acquired by means of the receptors present on skin, is transmitted to the sensory neuron which incorporates it to the choices valuable frightened gadget (the choices spinal cord and mind). A motor neuron consists of the choices message from the choices imperative frightened device to the effector which may be a muscle, a gland or both.

6.Which of the following statements are real?

(i) Sudden action in reaction to some thing in the environment is referred to as reflex movement.

(ii) Sensory neurons convey alerts from spinal cord to muscle tissues.

(iii)Motor neurons carry indicators from receptors to spinal twine.

(iv)The path through which alerts are transmitted from a receptor to muscle or a gland is referred to as reflex arc.

a.(i) and (ii)

b. (i) and (iii)

c. (i) and (iv)

d. (i) , (ii) and (iii)

Reflex arc is a easy frightened pathway and consists of sensory receptor, afferent neuron, centre, efferent neuron and effector organ. Automatic, brief and innate reaction to precise stimuli that is mediated by reflex arc is known as reflex action.

7.Which of the following statements are true about the brain?

(i) The most important wondering a part of brain in hind brain.

(ii) Centres of listening to, smell, memory, sight, and so forth., are located in fore brain.

(iii)Involuntary moves like salivation, vomiting, blood pressure are controlled through the choices medulla within the hind mind.

(iv)Cerebellum does no longer manage posture and balance of the choices frame.

a.(i) and (ii)

b. (i), (ii) and (iii)

c. (ii) and (iii)

d. (iii) and (iv)

Cerebrum is the choices middle for better concept techniques required for gaining knowledge of reminiscence, language and speech. Medulla is the center for regulation of involuntary moves.

8.Posture and stability of the choices body is managed by

Cerebellum coordinates the voluntary actions of skeletal muscle mass as well as posture, balance and equilibrium.

nine. Spinal cord originates from

Spinal twine starts in continuation with medulla and extends downwards.

10.The motion of shoot in the direction of light is

Growth movement of flowers in reaction to light is known as as phototropism.

11.The most important feature of abscisic acid in flowers is to

a.Increase the choices length of cells

b.Promote mobile department

d.Promote boom of stem

Abscisic acid is a increase retardation hormone.

12. Which of the subsequent isn’t always associated with growth of plant?

Abscisic acid is a boom retardation hormone.

13.Iodine is essential for the synthesis of which hormone?

Hormones of thyroid gland have iodine as their structural factor.

14.Choose the incorrect statement about insulin.

a.It is comprised of pancreas.

b.It regulates growth and development of the frame.

c. It regulates blood sugar degree.

d. Insufficient secretion of insulin will purpose diabetes.

Insulin regulates blood sugar stage.

15. Select the mis-matched pair

a.Adrenaline – Pituitary gland

d. Thyroxin – Thyroid gland

Adrenaline is secreted via the choices adrenal gland.

sixteen. The form of guard cells modifications because of trade within the

a.Protein composition of cells

b.Temperature of cells

c.Amount of water in cells

d.Position of nucleus in the cells

Shape of shield mobile is maintained by means of its turgidity which in turn is regulated by means of water content material of these cells.

17.The increase of tendril in pea flora is because of

a.Effect of light

b.Effect of gravity

c.Rapid mobile divisions in tendrillar cells which are faraway from the guide

d.Rapid cellular divisions in tendrillar cells in touch with the choices assist.

Growth actions in reaction to touch are known as thigmotropism.

18. The boom of pollen tubes in the direction of ovules is because of

Stigma serves as touchdown platform for pollen as well as secretes chemical materials that appeal to pollen tube thru fashion towards ovary.

19.The motion of sunflower in accordance with the direction of sun is because of

Growth motion of flowers in reaction to light is known as as phototropism.

20. The substance that triggers the fall of mature leaves and culmination from flora is because of

Abscisic acid serves to form of layer of abscission.

21. Which of the following statements about transmission of nerve impulse is wrong?

a. Nerve impulse travels from dendritic give up closer to axonal cease

b.At the dendritic end electric impulses result in the release of a few chemical substances which generate an electrical impulse at the choices axonal end of any other neuron.

c.The chemical compounds released from the choices axonal give up of 1 neuron cross the choices synapse and standard a similar electrical impulse in a dendrite of another neuron.

d.A neuron transmits electric impulses now not simplest to every other neuron but also to muscle and gland cells.

Neurotransmitters are released from axon of 1 neuron to dendrite of next neuron.

22.Involuntary moves in the frame are managed by

a.Medulla in fore brain

b.Medulla in mid brain

c.Medulla in hind brain

d.Medulla in spinal wire

Medulla is part of hind brain and ocntrols the involuntary movement.

23.Which of the following isn’t always an involuntary motion?

The moves that are not under our direct manipulate are called as involuntary actions.

24.When a person is stricken by intense bloodless, he or she can not

a.Differentiate the choices flavor of an apple from that of an ice cream.

b.Differentiate the choices scent of a perfume from that of an agarbatti.

c.Differentiate pink mild from green light.

d.Differentiate a warm item from a chilly object.

Cold thickens the choices mucus in nasal passages and block passage of odour to olfactory receptor cells.

25.Which assertion isn’t always genuine approximately thyroxin?

a.Iron is vital for the synthesis of thyroxin.

b.It regulates carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism inside the body.

c.Thyroid gland calls for iodine to synthesise thyroxin.

d.Thyroxin is also referred to as thyroid hormone.

Thyroxin contains iodine in its structure.

27.Dwarfism consequences due to

a.Excess secretion of thyroxin

b.Less secretion of increase hormone

c.Less secretion of adrenaline

d. Excess secretion of boom hormone

Growth hormone regulates regular growth and improvement of character.

28.Dramatic changes of frame features associated with puberty are particularly due to secretion of

a.Estrogen from testes and testosterone from ovary.

b.Estrogen from adrenal gland and testosterone from pituitary gland.

c.Testosterone from testes and estrogen from ovary.

d.Testosterone from thyroid gland and estrogen from pituitary gland.

Testosterone and estrogen are male and girl intercourse hormones respectively.

29. A physician suggested a person to take an injection of insulin due to the fact

a.His blood stress turned into low

b. His coronary heart became beating slowly

c.He become affected by goitre

d.His sugar level in blood become high.

Explanation: Insulin regulates the choices blood sugar degree.

30.The hormone which boom the choices fertility in men is known as

Testosterone is the male sex hormone vital for sperm manufacturing.

31.Which of the following endocrine glands is unpaired?

Explanation : Pituitary gland is unpaired gland.

32. Junction between two neurons is referred to as

b.Neuro muscular junction

33. In people, the existence methods are controlled and regulated by way of

a.Reproductive and endocrine systems

b.Respiratory and fearful structures

c.Endocrine and digestive systems

d.Nervous and endocrine structures

Explanation: Nervous device and endocrine device work collectively to preserve homeostasis.

Part B : Short Answer Type

34. Name the choices plant hormones liable for the following:

a.Elongation of cells

b.Growth of stem

c.Promotion of mobile division

d.Falling of senescent leaves

a.Elongation of cells : Auxin

b.Growth of stem : Gibberellin

c.Promotion of mobile division : Cytokinin

d.Falling of senescent leaves : Abscisic acid

35. Label the choices endocrine gland in discern:

36. Label the parts a, b, c and d and show the route of float of electrical alerts in given discern.

Direction of float of electric sign is as proven under:

Sensory receptor à Sensory neuron à Spinal wire à Motor neuron à Effector organ

37. In figure a, b and c, which seems more accurate and why?

Figure (a) is greater correct. Roots of plants are tremendous geotropic and grown downwards whilst stem is high quality phototropic and grows upwards.

38. Label the a part of a neuron in determine given beneath.

39. Match the phrases of column A with the ones of column B.

The matching of the choices column A with column B is :

forty. What is a trophic movement? Explain with an instance.

The directional growth movements of flora because of an external stimuli are known as tropic actions. It can be both closer to the choices stimulus, or far from it.

Growth of plant in reaction to light is called phototropism. For instance, shoots and stem of the plant develop upwards as a result show tremendous phototropism.

Growth of plant in direction of gravity is known as geotropism. For example, roots of flowers are grow downwards subsequently show high-quality geotropism.

41. What will happen if consumption of iodine in our weight-reduction plan is low?

Thyroid gland produces thyroxine and triodothyronine. Thyroxine has 4 iodine atoms even as triiodothyronine has 3 iodine atoms. The nutritional iodine serves as source and consequently iodine poor weight-reduction plan renders the gland unable to synthesize the choices hormones. Thyroid hormones deficiency inhibits metabolic fee, increase and improvement.

A man or woman would possibly suffer from goitre in case of iodine deficiency in the body.

42. What occurs at the choices synapse among neurons?

Synapse is the junction among two neurons. Electrical impulse at the choices axonal give up stimulates the axon bulb to release chemical which in turn diffuses across the choices synapse. The chemical serves to stimulate the choices dendrites of adjacent neuron which in flip send electrical signals to their cellular body to be carried along the choices axon.

a.Which hormone is liable for the adjustments observed in girls at puberty?

b.Dwarfism effects due to deficiency of which hormone?

c.Blood sugar stage rises because of deficiency of which hormone?

d.Iodine is necessary for the synthesis of which hormone?

a.Oestrogen is liable for development of secondary sexual characters in women at puberty.

b. Growth hormone promotes growth and improvement of the body.

c.Insulin controls blood sugar level via stimulating oxidation of glucose and absorption of glucose through liver and muscle cells.

d.Iodine is essential for the choices synthesis of thyroxine. It is a thyroid hormone that regulates the choices metabolism inside the frame.

a.Name the choices endoocrine gland associated with brain?

b.Which gland secretes digestive enzymes as well as hormones?

c.Name the endocrine gland related to kidneys.

d.Which endocrine gland is found in men but now not in women?

a.Pituitary gland placed in the groove of sphenoid bone of the choices cranium within the mind.

b.Pancreas secretes the pancreatic juice and hormones insulin and glucagon.

c.Adrenal glands are located on the top of two kidneys.

d.Testes are present simplest in adult males which secrete male intercourse hormone, testosterone.

Part C : Long Answer Type

forty five.Draw the choices shape of a neuron and give an explanation for its features.

Neuron is the structural and useful devices of worried device. It serves to hold nerves impulse from one part of frame to other. It has dendrites, cell frame and axon. Dendrite gets signals from sensory receptors or other neurons. The long extension of cellular frame of nerve mobile is called as axon that serves to behavior the nerve impulse away from the cellular body. Cell frame is the choices metabolic middle of neuron.

46.What are the main components of the brain? Mention the choices function of various components.

Brain is the choices most crucial coordinating center inside the frame. It has 3 fundamental components specifically: fore-brain, mid-mind and hind mind.

Learning, reminiscence, language and speech

Intelligence and voluntary actions

Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)

Thalamus : reputation of ache, temperature and difficult touch. Hypothalamus: involuntary moves.

Responsible for visual and auditory stimuli

Contains nuclei for ache modulation, motor coordination and motion making plans

Coordinates the choices voluntary actions of skeletal muscles in addition to posture, balance and equilibrium

Has reflex centres that control heartbeat, blood vessel diameter and rhythm of respiration in addition to other vital and involuntary features.

47.What constitutes the critical and peripheral anxious structures? How are the components of vital anxious system covered?

The important frightened device consists of the choices brain and the spinal wire.

Peripheral Nervous System : It lies out of doors the choices imperative fearful system and consists of somatic and autonomic apprehensive machine.

It includes cranial, spinal and visceral nerves.

(i)Cranial nerves: These encompass the choices 12 pairs that emerge from the choices brain often worried with head, neck and facial region of the body.

(ii)Spinal nerves : 31 pairs of spinal nerves rise up from the choices spinal twine and unfold throughout the choices frame.

(iii)Visceral apprehensive : These get up from he spinal wire and are connected to the internal organs of the body.

48.Mention one feature for each of these hormones.

It serves to modify carbohydrate,protein and fats metabolism inside the frame and thereby have an effect on normal boom and improvement.

Serves to lower down the blood sugar tiers.

Increases heart price and supply of blood to diverse organs; put together body for brief term stress responses.

It regulates increase and development within the body.

Development of secondary sexual characters in malesa and sperm formation.

49.Name diverse plant hormones. Also give their physiological consequences on plant boom and improvement. Also give their physiological effects on plant boom and development.

50.What are the choices reflex actions? Give two examples. Explain a reflex arc.

A reflex movement, is an involuntary and almost instantaneous motion in reaction to a stimulus.

Reflex arc is a simple frightened pathway and includes receptors, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons and muscle groups. The sensory neurons transmit the sensory records from sensory receptors to spinal wire or brain. The interneurons combine the choices incoming information and sign is relayed to motor neurons. The motor pathway transmits the choices sign from motor neurons to the effector organs.

fifty one.’Nervous and hormonal systems together perform the choices characteristic of manage and coordination in humans. Justify the choices declaration.

Nervous device serves to pass the choices sensory facts from receptor to effector organs and thereby generate response. The afferent or sensory neurons transmit the choices sensory statistics from sensory receptors to spinal wire or brain. The interneurons integrate the incoming information and signal is relayed to motor or efferent neurons. The efferent or motor pathway transmits the sign from motor neurons to the effector organs.

The effector organs generate reaction in phrases of secretion of either any interest or secretion of hormones. It can be stated that secretion of hormones is under regulation of nervous device. Hormonal gadget can regulate smart variety of goal tissues in comparison to frightened system. Hence, collectively, worried device and hormonal device serve the choices feature of control and coordination.

52.How does chemical coordination take vicinity in animals?

Hormones are the choices long-variety chemical messengers which can be released into blood by way of endocrine gland in response to a few sign. These hormones exert their effect on the choices target cells present distantly from their website of release. These hormones sere the function of chemical coordination in animals.

Hormones are launched into the choices blood move and might attain all cells but they affect or goal cells. This is followed by means of generation of stimulus particular biochemical or physiological activity. In this manner, hormones adjust functioning of various organs and tissues. Each hormone is beneath law of comments mechanism which in turn ensures reliability of the system.

fifty three.Why is the waft of signals in a synapse from axonal cease of one neuron to dendritic give up of any other neuron but now not the choices opposite?

Two neurons are by no means in bodily contact of each other and the choices junction among neurons is known as synapsis. The synapse serves like a one-manner valve as axonal ends of synapse release the choices chemical substance that diffuse into synapse. This chemical diffuses toward the choices dendrite stop of next neuron and propagates an electric powered signal.

Diffusion of chemical from axonal give up accompanied through its diffusion in synapse and fusion with dendrite of subsequent neuron guarantees the transmission of electrical signal. Since, the choices dendritic give up of neuron does now not launch the chemicals; the nerve impulse can move throughout only in ono path.

Chapter eight : How Do Organisms Reproduce

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.In the choices list of organisms given beneath, those who reproduce by way of the asexual approach are

a.(ii) and (iv)

b.(i),(iii) and (iv)

c.(i) and (iv)

d.(ii),(iii) and (iv)

Among the given options, Amoeba (binary fission), yeast (budding) and banana (vegetative propagule) reproduce by asexual reproduction whereas puppies reproduce with the aid of sexual technique.

2.In a flower, the choices elements that produce male and lady gametes (germ cells) are

a.Stamen and anther

b.Filament and stigma

c.Anther and ovary

d.Stamen and style

Another produce pollen through microsporogenesis and ovary produce egg cell by means of megasporogenesis.

three.Which of the following is the precise sequence of activities of sexual replica in a flower?

a.Pollination, fertilisation, seedling, embryo

b. Seedling, embryo, fertilisation, pollination

c.Pollination, fertilisation, embryo, seedling

d. Embryo, seedling, pollination, fertilization

In pollination, pollen grains transfer from stamen to stigma after which fertilization takes vicinity throughout which germ cells fuse together to shape zygote which in turn leads to embryo formation. Fertilized ovule becomes seed and seeds germinate to provide seedling.

4.Offspring fashioned by asexual technique of duplicate have more similarity amongst themselves due to the fact

(i)Asexual duplicate includes simplest one parent

(ii)Asexual reproduction does not involve gametes

(iii)Asexual duplicate occurs earlier than sexual duplicate

(iv)Asexual reproduction happens after sexual duplicate

a.(i) and (ii)

b.(i) and (iii)

c.(ii) and (iv)

d.(iii) and (iv)

Asexual duplicate does not involve gamete formation and fertilization.

five.Characters transmitted from parents to offspring are present in

Genes are the choices stretch of DNA and determine genetic characters.

6.Characters which might be transmitted from dad and mom to offspring in the course of reproduction show

a.Only similarities with dad and mom

b.Only variations with parents

c.Both similarities and versions with dad and mom

d.Neither similarities nor versions

Meiosis during gamete formation and fertilization produce versions whilst DNA replication guarantees similarities.

7. A feature of reproduction that is common to Amoeba, Spirogyra and yeast is that

a.They reproduce asexually

b.They are all unicellular

c.They reproduce handiest sexually

d.They are all multicellular

All of them reproduce asexually.

8.In Spirogyra, asexual replica takes area via

a.Breaking up of filaments into smaller bits

b.Division of a cellular into two cells

c.Division of a cellular into many cells

d.Formation of young cells from older cells

Fragmentation is sort of asexual duplicate in animals in which parental frame is broken down into pieces and each of those portions develops into an character animal.

nine.The capability of a cellular to divide into several cells throughout reproduction in Plasmodium is called

Multiple fission is repeated division of organism to provide many daughter cells simultaneously.

10.The correct collection of reproductive stages seen in flowering flowers is

a.Gametes, zygote, embryo, seedling

b.Zygote, gametes, embryo, seedling

c.Seedling, embryo, zygote, gametes

d.Gametes, embryo, zygote, seedling

Gamete formation is accompanied by using pollination and fertilization to produce zygote which in turn results in embryo formation. Fertilized ovule turn out to be seed and seeds germinate to provide seedling.

11. The variety of chromosomes in mother and father and offsprings of a selected species stays constant due to

a. Doubling of chromosomes after zygote formation

b. Halving of chromosomes at some point of gamete formation

c.Doubling of chromosomes after gamete formation

d. Halving of chromosomes after gamete formation

Meiosis reduces the chromosome wide variety to half that is then restored via fertilization.

12. In Rhizopus, tubular thread-like structures bearing sporangia at their recommendations are known as

Thin branched filaments of fungi are referred to as as hyphae.

13.Vegetative propagation refers to formation of new flowers from

a.Stem, roots and flora

b.Stem, roots and leaves

c. Stem, plants and end result

d. Stem,leaves and vegetation

Flowers are the choices organs of sexual replica in flowers.

14. Factors accountable for the choices rapid spread of bread mould on slice of bread are

(i) Large quantity of spores

(ii) Availability of moisture and nutrients in bread

(iii)Presence of tubular branched hyphae

(iv)Formation of spherical fashioned sporangia

a.(i) and (iii)

b.(ii) and (iv)

c.(i) and (ii)

d.(iii) and (iv)

Bread mildew prefers damp and warm substratum with enough deliver of vitamins on which its air-borne spores land and germinate to produce mycelium.

15.Length of pollen tube depends on the space between

a.Pollen grain and upper surface of stigma

b.Pollen grain on top floor of stigma and ovule

c.Pollen grain in anther and upper floor of stigma

d.Upper floor of stigma and lower a part of fashion

Pollen tube consists of male gametes to ovule and subsequently, is lengthy identical to the distance between stigma and ovary.

16.Which of the subsequent statements are real for plants?

(i) Flowers are usually bisexual

(ii)They are the choices sexual reproductive organs

(iii)They are produced in all groups of plants

(iv)After fertilization they deliver upward push to culmination

a.(i) and (iv)

b.(ii) and (iii)

c.(i) and (iii)

d.(ii) and (iv)

Flowers are the choices sexual reproductive organs of a plant and a fertilized flower provide upward push to fruit.

17.Which a number of the following statements are authentic for unisexual plant life?

(i) They own both stamen and pistil

(ii) They own both stamen or pistil

(iii)They showcase move pollination

(iv)Unisexual flowers possessing only stamen can’t produce end result.

a.(i) and (iv)

b.(ii), (iii) and (iv)

c. (iii) and (iv)

d.(i),(iii) and (iv)

Unisexual plant life have either male or female reproductive organs and are move pollinated ones. A fertilized flower gives upward push to fruit.

18.Which most of the following statements are genuine for sexual replica in flowering flora?

(i)It requires two sorts of gametes.

(ii)Fertilization is a compulsory occasion.

(iii)It constantly results in formation of zygote.

(iv)Offspring formed are clones.

a.(i) and (iv)

b.(i),(ii) and (iv)

c.(i),(ii) and (iv)

d.(i),(ii) and (iii)

Sexual replica includes fertilization of male and female gamete to provide zygote having genetic versions.

19.In discern the choices components A,B and C are sequentially

a.Cotyledon, plumule and radicle

b.Plumule, radicle and cotyledon

c.Plumule, cotyledon and radicle

d.Radicle, cotyledon and plumule

Plumule ‘A’ deliver rise to shoots, cotyledon ‘B’ serves to shop food and radicle ‘C’ grows into roots.

20.Offspring formed because of sexual replica showcase extra variant due to the fact

a.Sexual replica is a lengthy method.

b.Genetic material comes from two mother and father of the choices equal species.

c. Genetic cloth comes from two dad and mom of different species.

d. Genetic material comes from many parents.

Sexual reproduction produces genetic versions with the aid of meiosis at some point of gametes formation and fertilization of male and female gametes.

21.Reproduction is critical for living organisms to reserve to

a.Keep the man or woman organism alive

b.Fulfill their strength requirement

d.Continue the species generation after technology

Reproduction serves to hold the species which would in any other case extinct due to struggle for survival and herbal/unintended loss of life of people.

22. During youth, several changes arise within the human frame. Mark one alternate related to sexual maturation in boys.

a. Loss of milk tooth

b.Increase in peak

c. Cracking of voice

Cracking of voice is one of the secondary sexual characters of human males.

23.In human girls, an event that reflects onset of reproductive section is

a.Growth of frame

b.Changes in hair pattern

c.Change in voice

Development of girl secondary sexual characters marks onset of puberty and initiation of menstrual cycle displays onset of reproductive section.

24.In human males, the choices testes lie in the scrotum, as it helps in the

a.Process of mating

b.Formation of sperm

c.Easy transfer of gametes

d.All of these

Scrotum presents lower temperature needed for sperm formation.

25.Which a number of the following isn’t always the characteristic of testes at puberty?

(i) Formation of germ cells

(ii)Secretion of testosterone

(iii)Development of placenta

(iv)Secretion of estrogen

a.(i) and (ii)

b.(ii) and (iii)

c.(iii) and (iv)

d.(i) and (iv)

Development of placenta and secretion of estrogen are lady reproductive capabilities.

26. The correct sequence of organs in the male reproductive system for transport of sperms is

a.Testisà Vas Deferens à urethra

b. TestisàUreterà urethra

c. Testisà urethra à ureter

d. Testisà Vas Deferens à ureter

Vas deferens gives you sperms from testes to urethra coming from the choices urinary bladder.

27.Which a number of the following sicknesses isn’t sexually transmitted?

Hepatitis is water borne viral sickness.

Part B : Short Answer Type

28.In a bisexual flower, regardless of the younger stamens being eliminated artificially, the choices flower produces fruit. Provide a suitable reason for the above situation.

Removal of stamens of a bisexual flower will now not affect pollination of its intact pistil and formation of fruit. Cross-pollination has happened leading to fertilisation.

29.Can you recollect mobile division as a type of duplicate in unicellular organism? Give one purpose.

Yes, due to the fact mobile department in a unicellular organism effects within the formation of two daughter cells which means it produces greater individuals of the choices the organisms.

30.Explain how, offspring and dad and mom of organisms reproducing sexually have the same wide variety of chromosomes.

The dad and mom are diploid (2n) as every of them has two units of chromosomes. They shape haploid (1n) male and woman gametes through the choices procedure of meiosis. The haploid gametes have one set of chromosomes. Since, these gametes fuse at some stage in fertilisation, the authentic range of chromosomes is restored within the offspring.

31.Colonies of yeast fail to multiply in water, however multiply in sugar solution. Give one purpose for this.

Energy is important for any pastime in living organisms. Sugar provides this power for sustaining all life activities in yeasts. In water, it fails to breed due to insufficient strength in its cells. So, colonies of yeast fail to multiply in water however multiply in sugar solution.

32.Why does bread mold grow profusely on a moist slice of bread rather than on a dry slice of bread?

Bread mould require moisture and nutrients for its growth. A moist slice of bread includes both moisture and nutrients for this reason, it grows profusely as compared to a dry slice of bread which incorporates best vitamins but no moisture.

33.Give two motives for the advent of variations a few of the progeny formed by means of sexual reproduction.

1.In sexual duplicate, mother and father have extraordinary units of characters.

2.Gene mixtures are one-of-a-kind in gametes.

34.In tobacco plant, the choices male gametes have twenty four chromosomes. What is the number of chromosomes inside the woman gamete? What is the range of chromosomes inside the zygote?

The range of chromosomes inside the female gamete is 24. The quantity of chromosomes in the zygote is forty eight.

35.Is the choices chromosome quantity of zygote, embryonal cells and grownup of a selected organism constantly consistent? How is the choices constancy maintained in these three tiers?

Yes, the choices chromosome wide variety of zygote, embryonal cells and adult of a particular organism is usually steady. The fidelity is maintained because the cells in a majority of these three systems undergo best mitotic divisions.

36.How are popular growth and sexual v maturation different from each other?

General boom is the choices growth of different sorts of developmental system within the frame like growth in peak, weight advantage, changes in shape and size of the body. Sexual maturation is a hard and fast of adjustments in body of an man or woman at puberty like cracking of voice, new hair patterns, development of breast in lady, etc.

37.What have to be the choices ratio of chromosome range among an egg and its zygote? How is the sperm genetically specific from the choices egg?

The ratio of chromosome variety among an egg and its zygote is 1:2. Sperm is genetically exclusive from an egg in the way that it carries either X or Y chromosome while an egg constantly consists of an X chromosome.

38.How is the choices process of pollination different from fertilization?

The switch of pollen grains from the anther of a stamen to the stigma of the carpel is called pollination.

Fertilization takes place whilst the male gamete present in the pollen grain joins the choices lady gamete or egg gift within the ovule in an effort to form a diploid zygote.

Pollination is accomplished thru diverse companies like wind, water, birds and insects.

Fertilization is a organic manner.

39.What is the position of seminal vesicles and the prostate gland?

The secretions of seminal vesicles and prostate glands provide nutrients to the sperms and additionally make their transport less complicated with the aid of imparting them motility.

40.What are the choices modifications seen in women at the choices time of puberty?

Following modifications occur in girls at the choices time of puberty:

forty one. What is the importance of DNA copying in replica?

The creation of DNA reproduction is essential on the way to produce the organisms which can be just like their dad and mom of their genetic installation. DNA includes the records essential for the choices inheritance of features. DNA copying additionally produces variations which increases the choices chances of survival of the organism.

forty two.Can you believe you studied of motives why extra complicated organisms can not give upward push to new people via regeneration?

In complex multi cell organisms, specialised cells make up tissues; tissues make up organs; organs make up organ systems; and in the end organ structures make up organisms. These organisms have a totally high degree of organisation and hence cannot be reproduced from their cut body elements with the aid of the choices method of regeneration.

forty three. Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing a few types of flowers?

Vegetative propagation has some inherent blessings:

forty four.Why is DNA copying an critical part of the choices method of duplicate?

The advent of DNA replica is critical to supply organisms which are just like their mother and father. As copying brings some variations each time, the choices surviving cells are similar however subtly extraordinary from every different. This variant results in evolution of species.

45.What are the functions accomplished by way of the choices testis in people?

Testes are the primary reproductive organs in men. The function of testes is to make male gametes called sperms and also to make male sex hormone testosterone that’s answerable for the choices secondary male characters.

forty six.What could be the motives for adopting contraceptive techniques?

Following are some motives for adopting contraceptive methods:

Part C : Long Answer Type

47.Why is variation useful to the choices species however now not always for the individual?

Niches are basically nicely described places in an environment in which a populace of different or equal organisms live and reproduce. The population of a specific area of interest is nicely adapted to the choices environment of that niche. However, this population might also get wiped out because of certain ecological adjustments like drastic temperature alternate. But, if a few variations are present in a few individuals of that population then there will still be some probabilities in their survival. The surviving character can similarly reproduce and develop a populace as in keeping with the choices modified niche. Thus, version is beneficial to a species however now not always for the man or woman.

forty eight.Why budding, fragmentation and regeneration all are taken into consideration as asexual kinds of reproduction? With neat diagrams provide an explanation for the choices process of regeneration in Planaria.

Budding, fragmentation and regeneration are taken into consideration as asexual styles of duplicate due to the fact none of them consists of gamete formation and fertilization. All of these supply upward push to offspring from unmarried discern best.

Regeneration in Planaria – It reveals regeneration i.e capacity to grow the damaged frame component once more. If the choices frame of Planaria is cut into any number of pieces, each piece grows into a whole organism i.e replica via regeneration.

Regeneration is done through specialized cells which proliferate and bring big numbers of daughter cells. Different cells from the organization of daughter cells then differentiate into various cell kinds and tissues.

forty nine.Write two factors of difference among asexual and sexual kinds of replica. Describe why versions are observed within the offspring fashioned by sexual duplicate.

Difference between asexual and sexual varieties of reproduction.

Here handiest one discern is needed.

It involves dad and mom.

The process of gametogenesis does no longer arise.

It begins with manufacturing of gametes through gametogenesis.

No fertilization and zygote formation takes place right here.

Gamete formation is observed by fusion of male and female gametes leading to zygote formation.

It consists of best mitosis. Offspring are genetically identical clones.

Meiosis happens at the time of gamete formation. Meiosis and fertilization produce genetic versions in offspring.

Meiosis all through gamete formation introduces genetic versions via procedure of crossing over. Random fusion of male and female gametes for the duration of fertilization adds more genetic variations in offspring.

51.Distinguish between pollination and fertilization. Mention the choices web page and made of fertilization in a flower. Draw a neat, categorised diagram of a pistil displaying pollen tube growth and its entry into the ovule.

Distinguish among pollination and fertilization.

It is the choices transfer of pollen grains from anther of one flower to the stigma equal/ different flower of identical plant or on stigma of different plant of same species.

It is the fusion of male and lady gametes.

It is a physical manner.

It is a organic system.

The site of fertilization in flowers is ovule which in turn is found in ovary. The made from fertilization is a zygote.

fifty two.Distinguish among a gamete and zygote. Explain their roles in sexual duplicate.

The germ cells that are fused throughout sexual reproduction are known as gametes. Eg.sperm and ova

It is product of fusion of male gamete and woman gamete for the duration of sexual reproduction.

Gametes are unfertilized reproductive cells.

Zygote is fertilized egg or fertilized ovum.

Being the choices fabricated from meiosis, gamete are always haploid cells.

Since zygote is fabricated from fusion of haploid male and woman gamete, it is diploid structure.

Importance of gametes and zygote in sexual reproduction:

Gametes are merchandise of meiosis and therefore bring 1/2 the chromosome wide variety as that of figure cells. This chromosome range is restored throughout fertilization and zygote formation. Hence, gamete and zygote are the two levels of sexually reproducing organisms that help hold the choices consistent chromosome wide variety in each species.

53.Draw the choices diagram of a flower and label the four whorls. Write the choices names of gamete generating organs inside the flower.

The 4 whorls of a flower from outside closer to inner are :

Anther serves as male gamete producing organ while ovary serve as girl gamete producing organ within the flower.

54.What is placenta? Mention its position throughout pregnancy.

Followed by fertilization, placenta is advanced which serve to provide nutrients and oxygen to growing embryo from the mother’s blood. It is a disc embedded in the uterine wall and consists of villi on the embryo’s side of the choices tissue at the same time as blood areas surrounding the villi are present on mom’s side. The embryo is attached to the placenta by means of umbilical twine, a tube like structure.

Placenta serves to fulfill all nutritional requirements of developing embryo by supplying meals and oxygen from mom’s blood to the embryo. Waste products of developing embryo are eliminated by using shifting them into the choices mother’s blood through the placenta. Functions of placenta are facilitated by way of villi that offer huge floor areas for passage of nutrition and oxygen to embryo from mom via blood.

55.What are the choices numerous methods to keep away from pregnancy? Elaborate anyone method.

Methods to keep away from undesired being pregnant are called contraceptive strategies. It consists of:

Vasectomy refers to surgical approach wherein vasa deferentia in human adult males are cut and sealed to save you pregnancy through making seminal fluid devoid of sperms. Tubectomy refers to surgical technique wherein oviducts in human women are reduce and sealed to prevent being pregnant by inhibiting released of egg.

Fusion of male gamete sperm and female gamete egg in fallopian tube (oviduct) is known as as fertilization. The manner starts with introduction of sperms, produced in testes of male, into the choices vagina of the girl via penis all through copulation or mating. Highly active and mobile sperms bypass from cervix through the uterus into the oviducts. Ovulation, in girl, releases ovum in oviduct. Irrespective of launch of thousands and thousands of sperms into the choices vagina at one time, best one sperm fuses with the choices ovum in the oviduct to shape a zygote. i.e fertilization.

Ovulation is launch of ovum from ovary into oviduct and takes vicinity only as soon as in a month i.e 14th day of menstrual cycle. Hence, fertilization can arise handiest as soon as in a month.

57.Reproduction is essentially a phenomenon that is not for survival of an person however for the stableness of a species. Justify.

Each species faces many forces that lessen the choices wide variety of people constantly. Some of them are namely struggle for survival, opposition for herbal assets, predation, herbal cycle of getting old and death, any herbal calamity and many others. All these herbal forces lessen the wide variety of people per species.

Reproduction is the choices technique of production of own kind. It includes manufacturing of offspring having each similarities and versions among themselves and from mother and father. Further, the system of DNA replication and its inheritance to offspring make sure manufacturing of very own kind best. Therefore, replica not simplest restore the quantity of people removed from the species by means of above mentioned herbal forces but additionally preserve heredity of genetic characters and introduction of versions, as needed for continuity and stability of a species. Without it, all of the present species will lessen quickly and life will come to an stop.

58.Describe sexually transmitted sicknesses and point out the choices methods to prevent them.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases are the choices infectious diseases that are transmitted throughout unprotected sexual intercourse from the choices infected accomplice. Eg. Bacterial infection like gonorrhea and syphilis, and viral infections like warts and HIV-AIDS. STD as a result of micro organism contamination (eg.chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) are treatable with antibiotics. To save you STDs, the subsequent precautions may be taken.

(i)Practices regarding covered sexual intercourse lessen the choices threat in STD.

(ii)Avoid multiple sex companions and maintain personal hygiene.

Chapter nine : Heredity and Evolution

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Exchange of genetic cloth takes vicinity in

Sexual duplicate entails meiosis in gamete mother cells to form gametes and fusion of male and lady gametes into zygote.

2.Two red colored plants on crossing resulted in 1 red, 2 purple and 1 white flower progeny. The nature of the move can be

Cross fertilization is switch of pollen from one plant to the choices stigma of flower borne on special plant of same species.

3.A pass between a tall plant (TT) and brief pea plant (tt) resulted in progeny that have been all tall vegetation because

a. Tallness is the dominant trait

b. Shortness is the choices dominant trait

c. Tallness is the recessive trait

d. Height of pea plant is not ruled by using gene ‘T’ or ‘t’

According to law of dominance, a trait is represented by means of two contrasting elements of a gene in a heterozygous individual; the allele/aspect that could express itself in heterozygous character is referred to as as dominant trait. The other element whose effect is masked by means of presence of dominant issue, is referred to as recessive aspect.

four.Which of the following assertion is inaccurate?

a.For every hormone there’s a gene

b.For each protein there may be a gene

c. For production of every enzyme there is a game

d. For every molecule of fat there is a gene

Fat biosynthesis occurs via metabolic response.

five.If a round, inexperienced seeded pea plant (RRyy) is crossed with wrinkled, yellow seeded pea plant, (rrYY) the choices seeds production in F1 technology are

a.Round and yellow

b. Round and green

c. Wrinkled and green

d. Wrinkled and yellow

The move among Rryy and rrYY seeds will acquire RrYy offspring for you to show off spherical and yellow phenotype as these developments are dominant one.

6.In human males, all of the chromosomes are paired flawlessly except one. This / those unpaired chromosome is/are

a.(i) and (ii)

c.(iii) and (iv)

d.(ii) and (iv)

Human men are hemizygous for X and Y chromosomes.

7.The maleness of a child is decided with the aid of

a. The X chromosome inside the zygote

b. The Y chromosome in zygote

c. The cytoplasm of germ cellular which determines the choices intercourse

d. Sex is determined by using threat

The maleness of a child is determined by means of presence of Y chromosome in zygote.

eight.A zygote which has an X chromosome inherited from the daddy will grow to be a

c.X chromosome does no longer determine the choices intercourse of a child

d.Either boy or female

Humans follow XX-XY mechanism of intercourse dedication

nine.Select the incorrect assertion.

a.Frequency of certain genes in a populace trade over several generations resulting in evolution.

b.Reduction in weight of the choices organism because of starvation is genetically controlled.

c.Low weight parents can have heavy weight progeny.

d. Traits which aren’t inherited over generations do not cause evolution.

The weight reduction due to hunger is environmentally determined element.

10. New species may be shaped if

(i) DNA undergoes great modifications in germ cells.

(ii) Chromosome number changes within the gamete.

(iii)There is not any change inside the genetic cloth

(iv)Mating does not take area

a.(i) and (ii)

b.(i) and (iii)

c.(ii), (iii) and (iv)

d.(i),(ii) and (iii)

Change in genetic cloth ends in reproductive isolation of population into a new species.

eleven. Two pea vegetation, one with spherical inexperienced seeds (RRyy) and any other with wrinkled yellow (rrYY) seeds produce F1 progeny that have round, yellow (RrYy) seeds. When F1 plant life are selfed, the F2 progeny could have new combination of characters. Choose the brand new combination from the subsequent.

The new combination in F2 progeny can be offspring showing phenotype aside from aren’t ones (spherical and inexperienced; wrinkled yellow). Hence, the recombinant progeny can be one with spherical yellow and wrinkled green seeds.

12. A basket of greens consists of carrot, potato, radish and tomato. Which of them constitute the appropriate homologous systems?

a. Carrot and potato

b. Carrot and tomato

c. Radish and carrot

d. Radish and potato

Homologous organs perform distinct features and have extraordinary appearance however percentage not unusual primary structural plan and starting place.

13. Select the correct assertion

a. Tendril of a pea plant and phylloclade of Opuntia are homologous.

b. Tendril of a pea plant and phylloclade of Opuntia are analogous.

c. Wings of birds and limbs of lizards are analogous

d. Wings of fowl and wings of bar are homologous

Homologous organs perform distinctive capabilities and have specific look however share common simple structural plan and foundation. Analogous organs perform comparable function and have comparable appearance however have exclusive primary shape and foundation.

14. If the fossil of an organism is found inside the deeper layers of earth, then we are able to are expecting that

a.The extinction of organism has happened lately.

b. The extinction of organism has happened thousands of years in the past.

c. The fossil function within the layers of earth isn’t related to its time of extinction.

d. Time of extinction can’t be decided.

Depth of each stratum signifies the choices relative age of fossils present in it. The deeper the choices stratum, the older the rock and the fossils found in it.

15.Which of the following statements isn’t true with recognize to version?

a.All variations in a species have equal probabilities of survival.

b. Change in genetic composition outcomes in version.

c. Selection of editions by environmental factors bureaucracy the idea of evolutionary procedures.

d. Variation is minimum in asexual reproduction.

Variations that impart reproductive or survival benefit to organisms are being preferred for the duration of evolution.

sixteen. A trait in an organism is influenced through

a. Paternal DNA simplest

b. Maternal DNA most effective

c. Both maternal and paternal DNA

d. Neither by way of paternal nor by maternal DNA

An organism develops from zygote which in flip is fabricated from fusion of male and girl gamete.

17. Select the institution which stocks most number of common characters

a. Two individuals of a species

b. Two species of a genus

c. Two genera of a family

d. Two genera of families

Species form the bottom taxonomic class and consists of all of the organisms that proportion maximum range of not unusual characters. While shifting up in taxonomic hierarchy, quantity of shared characters get reduced.

18. According to the evolutionary idea, formation of a new species is commonly due to

a. Sudden advent via nature

b. Accumulation of versions over numerous generations

c. Clones shaped all through asexual duplicate

d. Movement of people from one habitat to any other

Accumulation of variations over numerous generations serve as uncooked cloth on which evolutionary pressure (herbal choice) acts upon to create new species.

19.From the choices listing given beneath, select the choices character which can be obtained but now not inherited

a. Colour of eye

b. Colour of skin

c. Size of frame

d. Nature of hair

Environmentally determined traits are obtained. Size of frame depends on nutritional fame, fitness conditions and many others.

20. The two variations of a trait (individual) which might be added in with the aid of the choices male and woman gametes are located on

a.Copies of the identical chromosome

b. Two different chromosomes

The two variations of a trait are situated on homologous chromosomes.

21. Select the choices statements that describe traits of genes

(i) Genes are particular series of bases in a DNA molecule

(ii) A gene does no longer code for proteins.

(iii)In people of a given species, a selected gene is located on a selected chromosome

(iv)Each chromosome has handiest one gene.

Genes are stretches of DNA located on specific locus on a selected chromosome in individuals of a given species.

22. In peas, a natural tall plant (TT) is crossed with a brief plant (tt). The ratio of pure tall flowers to short flora in F2 is

The monohybrid F2 era phenotypic ratio is 3:1.

23. The variety of pair(s) of sex chromosomes in the zygote of people is

Zygote is diploid structure and has one pair of sex chromosomes (XX or XY).

24.The concept of evolution of species by means of herbal selection was given by using

Darwin proposed the idea of natural selection to give an explanation for the choices technique of evolution.

25. Some dinosaurs had feathers even though they couldn’t fly however birds have feathers that assist them to fly. In the choices context of evolution which means that

a. Reptiles have advanced from birds.

b. There is no evolutionary connection among reptiles and birds.

c. Feathers are homologous structures in both the choices organisms.

d. Birds have developed from reptiles.

Development of flight feathers in reptilian ancestors of birds lead to evolution of birds(aves).

Part B : Short Answer Type

26. How is the choices intercourse of a new born decided in people?

Humans follow XX-XY mechanism of intercourse dedication. Human girls have 40-intercourse chromosomes arranged in twenty homologous and homomorphic autosomes and copies of X chromosomes as intercourse chromosomes (forty four+XX). Males have twenty- homomorphic pairs and one heteromorphic pair, the choices XY pair (forty four+XY). During meiosis, all the gametes produced by girls comprise best the choices X chromosome (22A +X), while men produce kinds of gametes, ½ gametes with X- and ½ with Y-chromosome ((22A+X and 22A+Y). Fertilization of egg (22+X) with sperm carrying 22+X chromosomes outcomes in lady child (44A+XX). Fertilization of egg (22+X) with sperm wearing 22+Y chromosomes outcomes in male child(44A + XY).

27.Do genetic mixture of mothers play a sizable position in figuring out the choices sex of a new born?

Humans comply with XX-XY mechanism of sex determination. Human girls have forty-six chromosomes organized in twenty homologous and homomorphic autosomes and copies of X chromosomes as sex chromosomes (44A + XY). Therefore, presence or absence of Y chromosome male gamete determines the intercourse of human infant.

28.Mention three crucial features of fossils which assist within the look at of evolution.

Fossils assist within the observe of evolution in following approaches:

29.Why do all of the gametes fashioned in human women have an X-chromosome?

Human ladies have forty-six chromosomes organized in twenty homologous and homomorphic autosomes and two copies of X chromosomes as intercourse chromosomes (44+XX). Therefore, in the course of meiosis, all the gametes produced by way of women incorporate most effective the choices X chromosome(22A +X).

30.In people, the statistical opportunity of getting both a male or female infant is 50:50. Give a appropriate explanation.

Humans comply with XX-XY mechanism of intercourse dedication. Human women have forty-six chromosomes organized in twenty two homologous and homomorphic autosomes and two copies of X chromosomes as intercourse chromosomes (forty four+XX). Males have twenty-two homomorphic pairs and one heteromorphic pair, the choices XY pair (forty four+XY). During meiosis, all of the gametes produced with the aid of women comprise handiest the choices X chromosome (22A +X), whereas men produce kinds of gametes, ½ gametes will X- and ½ with Y-chromosome (22A + X and 22A+Y). Therefore, opportunity of fertilization of egg (22+X) with sperm wearing 22+X chromosomes and therefore probabilities of getting a lady baby (44A+ XX) is 50%. Likewise, there is 50% possibility that egg (22+X) is fertilized with sperm wearing 22+Y chromosomes to have male baby(44A+XY).

31.A very small populace of a species faces a extra hazard of extinction than a larger populace. Provide a suitable genetic clarification.

Smaller populations are at greater threat of extinction as compared to big species. This is because less wide variety of person in smaller population imparts lesser modifications in manufacturing of genetic variations. Lack of genetic diversity makes the smaller species greater at risk of extinction below any dramatic changes in triumphing environmental conditions.

On the other hand, large populations showcase greater genetic diversity on which evolutionary forces act upon to make it face up to any modifications in surrounding.

32.What are homologous structures? Give an example. Is it important that homologous systems usually have a not unusual ancestor?

Homologous organs perform special capabilities and have distinct appearance but percentage commonplace basic structural plan and origin. Divergent evolution refers to evolution of organisms in distinctive guidelines from a commonplace ancestry and ends in improvement of homologous organs. For instance, forelimbs of reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals.

Yes, homologous structures are inherited from a commonplace ancestor. In the given example, the basic shape of forelimb of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians is comparable but they may be modified to carry out unique features in numerous vertebrates. Thus, displaying they have got developed from a not unusual ancestor.

33.Does the prevalence of range of animals on this planet endorse their numerous ancestry also? Discuss this point within the light of evolution.

Animals in the world showcase widespread range in structure and function which in turn propose their foundation from numerous ancestors. For instance, reptiles, birds and mammals show off giant variety and appear to have developed from one of a kind ancestors.

However, distinct evaluation of characters of these three agencies reveals their not unusual ancestry as they all showcase amniotic eggs. Presence of fluid stuffed sac(amnion) around the embryo at some stage in its development is prime characteristic of amniotes. Amniotes includes 3 companies namely reptilia, aves and mammalia. An method to divide and sub divide every organization of animals and try to discover their commonplace characters, all diverse group appear to have evolved from a commonplace ancestor. Diverse habitat of these companies precipitated them to evolved specific characters and to look various from each other as we see them nowadays.

It can be concluded that all animals companies originated on this planet from not unusual ancestors and exhibited divergent evolution that in turn evolve them into diverse businesses.

34. Give the pair of contrasting tendencies of the subsequent characters in pea plant and point out that’s dominant and recessive.

35. Why did Mendel pick out pea plant for his experiments?

Mendel studied the choices commonplace lawn pea plant, (Pisum Sativum) due to the fact

36.A woman has handiest daughters. Analyse the state of affairs genetically and provide a appropriate rationalization.

Humans follow XX-XY mechanism of intercourse dedication. Human women have forty-six chromosomes organized in twenty homologous and homomorphic autosomes and two copies of X chromosomes as sex chromosomes (44+XX). They do not play considerable function in sex dedication of baby.

Males have twenty-two homomorphic pairs and one heteromorphic pair, the choices XY pair (forty four+XY). Fertilization of egg(22+X) with sperm sporting 22+X chromosomes gives woman baby (44A+XX). Fertilization of egg (22+X) with sperm wearing 22+Y chromosomes gives male baby (44A +XY). Only daughters suggest fusion of egg with sperms wearing 22+X chromosomes on every occasion.

Part C : Long Answer Type

37. Does geographical isolation of people of a species result in formation of a new species? Provide a appropriate explanation.

Yes, geographical isolation of individuals of a species results in speciation. Splitting of current species into two new species observed through their geographical isolation brings about reproductive isolation. Populations of a species get separated into two groups with the aid of accumulation of genetic variations in them. These newly shaped corporations are then remoted by using any geographical barrier.

Reproductive isolation is absence of interbreeding between members of different species. Geographical barriers save you interbreeding among two companies. This in turn causes isolation of gene pool of phase of populace from rest; inhibits gene waft (unfold of genes among populations) and thereby results in formation of recent species.

38.Bacteria have a easier frame plan whilst compared with people. Does it mean that humans are more evolved than micro organism? Provide a suitable explanation.

Evolution is the technique of accumulation of adaptive changes in populace’s genetic makeup via successive generations. Mutation in gene pool of population ends in creation of recent/altered trends. Now, natural selection acts on these tendencies and choose handiest those trends which makes the choices organism greater tailored to the winning climatic conditions. It can be stated that simplest the ones mutations which provide survival and reproductive advantage to organisms are preferred through herbal selection. Increased wide variety of organisms having these desired traits ends in evolution of species with time.

Evolution isn’t always associated with complexity of frame shape. It isn’t ideal to say that each one complex organisms are more developed and all easier organisms are less evolved. Dinosaurs have been much extra complex organisms which were given disappear followed by way of look of birds in the world(organism with less complex body shape compared to dinosaurs). Although bacteria are simpler organisms in comparison to human however have evolved with time that enable them to face up to extremes of climatic conditions (thermophillic bacteria, halophiles and many others) and to increase many adaptive developments to continue to exist underneath harsh situations (antibiotic resistance). Thus, evolutionary process does now not prove the bacteria being much less developed organisms as compared to human.

39.All the choices human races like Africans, Asians, Europeans, Americans and others would possibly have advanced from a common ancestor. Provide some evidences in aid of this view.

Human races are anthropogenic idea; it has no roots in biology. Body plan, morphology, anatomy, physiology and metabolism is commonplace to all human. They are share consistent chromosome number (23 pairs) and equal genetic as nearly ninety nine.nine% DNA is equal in all human races. And also all the human race can freely inter-breed to produce fertile offspring.

Evolutionary activities additionally suggest starting place of human from a not unusual African ancestor. The earliest individuals of the choices human species, Homo sapiens may be traced there. Taking into consideration of most of these evidences, all human races seem to have commonplace ancestor.

40.Differentiate between inherited and bought characters. Give one instance for each kind.

Differences among inherited and acquired characters are:

Characters which are decided by means of genetic makeup of organisms are known as as inherited characters.

Characters which can be decided with the aid of environmental factors alone and genetic make-up of organisms does now not play any position are called as received characters.

These characters are exceeded from mother and father to offspring at some point of the manner of reproduction.

These characters stay limited to the individual most effective and are in no way surpassed from parents to offspring.

Any adjustments in genetic make-up of an organism additionally alter the choices inherited characters.

Any modifications in genetic makeup of an organism do now not adjust those characters.

For instance: Eye color, seed, color, top

For example: Body weight, loss of finger in an twist of fate.

41. Give reasons why received characters are not inherited.

Characters which might be decided by way of environmental elements alone and genetic makeup of organisms does not play any position are called as received characters. These characters are advanced throughout lifetime of an organism. Since genetic charter does not decide these tendencies, they continue to be confined to the person most effective and are in no way exceeded from dad and mom to offspring.

For instance: Body length of an character is determined by way of health status, vitamins, presence or absence of any disease, severity of sickness, bodily interest, and so on. Genes do not decide the scale of frame as it is advanced with the aid of above noted environmental elements at some stage in lifetime of the choices man or woman.

Evolution is the choices procedure of accumulation of adaptive changes in population’s genetic make-up via successive generations. Mutation in gene pool of populace leads to creation of new/ altered morphological structures. Now, natural selection acts on changed systems and desire most effective those which makes the organism more adapted to the triumphing climatic situations. Therefore, with passage of time, evolution leads to adjustments in morphology of organisms to impart them the survival and reproductive benefit. For example, evolution of homologous, analogous and vestigial organs. On the other hand, biomolecules (lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA) have maintained a relatively stable structure through evolution. The simple scaffold of these molecules has now not been modified. DNA in all organisms is made from pentose sugar, phospate moiety and nitrogenous bases. Organisms vary simplest inside the collection of nitrogenous bases which in turn impart one of a kind styles of particular trait to them. Otherwise, biomolecules have maintained a strong structure.

43. In the following crosses write the choices characteristics of the progeny move.

a.A move between pure breeding dominant parents offers natural breeding dominant offspring. All progeny in this pass will have genotype RRYY and could show off spherical and yellow phenotype.

b.A pass among two dihybrid dominant recessive parents offers phenotypic ratio of 9:three:three:1 in offspring.

Progeny – Round yellow : Round green : Wrinkled yellow : Wrinkled green = 9:three:three:

c.A go among two pure breeding recessive mother and father provide pure breeding recessive offspring. All progeny on this go can have genotype “rryy” and could exhibit wrinkled and inexperienced phenotype

d.A cross between natural breeding dominant and recessive parents supply heterozygous dominant offspring. All progeny on this go can have genotype RrYy and could showcase spherical and yellow phenotype

forty four.Study the following move displaying self pollination in F1. Fill in the blank:

A dihybrid indicates inheritance of two unique trends simultaneously. A cross between natural breeding dominant and recessive dad and mom gives heterozygous dominant offspring. All F1 progeny in this move can have genotype RrYy and will show off round and yellow phenotype. Self cross in F1 progeny gives F2 generation and observe law of impartial collection of characters.

forty five.In the choices above query, what are the choices mixture within the F2 progeny? What are their ratios?

A dihybrid cross shows inheritance of distinctive traits simultaneously. A go between two natural breeding dominant and recessive dad and mom offers heterozygous dominant offspring. All F1 progeny in this move can have genotype RrYy and could showcase round and yellow phenotype. Self move in F1 progeny offers F2 era and comply with regulation of impartial assortment of characters.

Phenotypic ratio = nine round yellow, 3 spherical green, three wrinkled yellow, 1 wrinkled inexperienced. So, F2 era well-knownshows each parental and recombinant offspring. Hence, the choices ratio is = nine:three:three:1.

46.Give the fundamental capabilities of the mechanism of inheritance.

Transmission of genetic feature from one era to the next is termed as inheritance. The basic characteristic of mechanism of inheritance are following:

forty seven.Give motives for the appearance of recent combination of characters inside the F2 progeny in query forty five.

F1 flowers have round and yellow seeds. Cron among generations, they deliver rise to new mixtures in F2 era with round-yellow, spherical inexperienced, wrinkled yellow and wrinkled inexperienced in the ratio of 9:3:3:1.

This suggests that the chances for the pea seed to be round or wrinkled do no longer depend on their probabilities to be yellow or green. Each pair of alleles is impartial of the alternative pair. This is known as predominant of unbiased assortmen

Chapter 10 : Reflection and Refraction

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the following can make a parallel beam of light while light from a point source is incident on it?

a.Concave mirror as well as convex lens

b.Convex mirror in addition to concave lens

c.Two plane mirrors placed at ninety levels to every different

d. Concave reflect in addition to concave lens

When a point light source is positioned at the point of interest of concave reflect then it all light rays after reflection via mirror turns into parallel to the choices most important axis.

When this point mild supply is placed at the focal point of convex lens then after falling on convex lens it will become parallel to the primary axis.

2.A 10 mm long axe pin is located vertically in front of a concave replicate. A 5 mm long picture of the awl pin is shaped at 30 cm in the front of the choices replicate. The focal duration of the reflect is

Here, the scale of the choices object = O = mm = +1.0cm (as 1cm =10mm)

Size of photo size= I = 5.0mm = zero.5cm

Image distance, v= -30cm (as photo is real)

Let, item distance =u

Now, magnification, m = I/O

Magnification is likewise given by means of , m = -v/u

I/O = -v/u

Now with the aid of replicate components, focal duration f is 1/f = 1/v +1/u

After equating, f = -20cm

three.Under which of the following conditions, a concave replicate can form an picture larger than the choices real item?

a. When the object is saved at a distance equal to its radius of curvature.

b. When object is saved at a distance less than its focal period.

c. When object is located among the focal point and centre of curvature.

d. When object is kept at a distance greater than its radius of curvature.

A concave reflect can shape an photograph large than the choices real item whilst the choices object is placed among the focal point and centre of curvature.

Image formation is shown under, in which item AB is placed between the point of interest and centre of curvature for which photograph A’B’ is obtained at the back of the choices replicate.

4. Figure shows a ray of mild as it travels from medium A to medium B. Refractive index of the medium B relative to medium A is

Here the choices angle of occurrence = i= 60o

Angle of refraction r= 45o

Refractive index of the medium B relative to medium A

5.A light ray enters from medium A to medium B as shown within the determine. The refractive index of medium B relative to A may be

a.Greater than cohesion

b.Less than unity

c.Equal to solidarity

Since mild rays in medium B is going toward regular. So it has more restrictive index and lesser velocity of light with respect to medium A. So refractive index 0f medium B with admire to medium A is more than harmony.

6.Beams of mild are incident through the holes A and B and emerge out of field via the choices holes C and D respectively as proven within the discern. Which of the subsequent might be in the container?

a.A square glass slab

b.A convex lens

c.A concave lens

In the given figure, emergent light rays are parallel to the choices course of incident mild rays. Out of the given options most effective a square glass slab can exchange the choices course of mild ray in this type of manner that emergent rays are parallel to the choices incident rays.

7. A beam of mild is incident via the choices holes on side A and emerges out of the choices holes on the opposite face of the container as shown in the determine. Which of the following will be within the box?

b.Rectangular glass slab

In the given diagram, parallel rays converge at a factor and emerges from face B. So, there might be a convex lens within the box.

eight.Which of the following statements is true?

a.A convex lens has four dioptre strength having a focal duration 0.25m

b.A convex lens has four dioptre energy having a focal duration – 0.25m

c.A concave lens has four dioptre energy having a focal duration zero.25m

d.A concave lens has 4 dioptre power having a focal duration -zero.25 m

The electricity(P) of a lens of focal period(f) is given with the aid of P=1/f, wherein f is the choices focal duration meter and strength in dioptre.

nine.Magnification produced by a rear view mirror equipped in motors. less than one multiple equal to 1

d.can be greater than or less than one relying upon the position of the choices object in the front of it.

Explanation : Convex replicate is used as rear view reflect in automobiles. It bureaucracy digital, errect and diminished pics of the objects.

As, magnification is ratio of peak of image to the height of the choices object, as a result, magnification produced through a rear view mirror fitted in automobiles is much less than one.

10.Rays from sun coverage at a point 15cm in front of a concave reflect. Where have to an object be located so that length of its photo is same to the size of the choices object?

a.15cm in front of the replicate

b.30 cm in the front of the choices replicate

c.Between 15cm and 30cm in the front of the replicate

d.More than 30cm in the front of the choices reflect

Sun is at endless distance from the floor of the earth. Now the choices mild rays from solar rays after mirrored image from concave reflect will converge at awareness. It is given that sunrays converge at 15cm. So, focal period of the mirror f= 15cm.

In case of a concave reflect, the scale of picture and item might be equal if the choices object is located at 2f. Hence, in this case item need to be located at 2f or 2×15 = 30 cm.

eleven.A complete period photo of a distant tall building can really be visible by using

a.A concave mirror

b.A convex reflect

c.A aircraft mirror

d.Both concave in addition to aircraft replicate

A convex mirror paperwork virtual, erect and faded photograph of the gadgets. So out of given options, remote tall constructing can really be seen with the aid of the use of a convex reflect.

12.In torches, search lighting and headlights of cars, the bulb is positioned

a.among the pole and consciousness of the choices reflector

b.very near to the focus of the choices reflector

c.among the point of interest and centre of curvature of the reflector the centre of curvature of the reflector

In torches, search lighting fixtures and headlights of vehicles, the choices bulb is positioned very close to to the focus of the reflector (or concave reflect).

It is due the choices purpose that mild rays after falling on reflecting surface become parallel to the choices foremost axis of the reflect, and a focused beam of mild is acquired.

thirteen.The legal guidelines of mirrored image maintain exact for

a.plane mirror most effective

b.concave replicate simplest

c.convex reflect most effective

d.all mirrors irrespective of their form

The legal guidelines of reflection holds correct for mild pondered form any smooth floor i.e all mirrors regardless of its shape.

14.The course of a ray of mild coming from air passing thru a square glass slab traced by 4 students shown as A, B, C and D within the determine. Which one in all them is accurate?

When a light ray is handed thru a tumbler slab obliquely then, emergent ray could be parallel to the choices course of the incident ray.

15. You are given water, mustard oil, glycerine and kerosene. In which of those media, a ray of light incident obliquely at a few angle would bend the choices most.

Out of the given four substances, the refractive index of glycerine is highest. So, finest deviation of incident light ray is discovered in case of glycerine.

16.Which of the subsequent ray diagrams is accurate for the choices ray of light incident on a concave replicate as shown in determine?

Ray of light going parallel to the choices predominant axis in the direction of the reflect after mirrored image will skip via the focus. So, parent D is correct.

17.Which of the following ray diagrams is correct for the choices ray of mild incident on a lens shown in discern?

When a light ray passing through attention will fall on convex lens then, the emergent ray of light turns into parallel to the important axis. So, parent A is correct.

18.A toddler is standing in the front of a magic reflect. She reveals the picture of her head larger, the choices middle part of her frame of the choices identical size and that of the choices legs smaller. The following is the choices order of combos for the magic mirror from the pinnacle.

a.Plane, convex and concave

b.Convex, concave and aircraft

c.Concave, aircraft and convex

d.Convex, plane and concave

Her head appears huge; it method concave reflect of big focal length is used at the top. Her middle frame appears of the choices equal size in the mirror. It approach plane reflect is used inside the center. Her legs seem smaller. It means convex mirror is used beneath plane mirror. Hence, alternative c is the appropriate aggregate

19. In which of the following, the image of an item placed at infinity may be noticeably diminished and factor sized?

a.Concave mirror best

b.Convex reflect best

c.Convex lens only

d.Convex reflect, convex reflect, concave lens and convex lens

The incident rays coming from an item positioned at infinity can be parallel to the most important axis and the rays parallel to the main axis, after mirrored image/refraction through concave mirror, convex reflect, concave lens and convex lens, will bypass or appear to pass through the important focus. Hence, photograph can be exceptionally diminished and factor sized.

Part B : Short Answer Type

20. Identify the device used as a spherical mirror or lens in following cases. When the image shaped is virtual and erect in each case.

a.Object is positioned between device and its awareness, photograph shaped is enlarged and behind it.

b.Object is located among the focus and device, picture shaped is enlarged and on the choices identical facet as of the choices item.

c.Object is placed among infinity and device, photo shaped is diminished and between awareness and optical centre of the equal facet as that of the choices object.

d.Object is positioned between infinity and device, photo shaped is dwindled and between pole and recognition, in the back of it.

a.Concave mirror is used.

b. Convex lens is used.

c.Concave lens is used.

d.Convex mirror is locate

21. Why does a mild ray incident on a rectangular glass slab immersed in any medium emerges parallel to itself? Explain using a diagram.

As mild rays input from another medium to glass, it deviates from its route thru positive angle (). When this light ray exists from the alternative face of glass slab to the choices medium from which it is coming, then it again deviate with the choices same perspective but in contrary sense.

Hence, a mild ray incident on the square glass slab immersed in any medium emerges parallel to itself.

22.A pencil when dipped in water in a glass tumbler appears to be bent at the choices interface of air and water. Will the pencil look like bent to the choices equal extent, if in preference to water we use liquids like, kerosene or turpentine? Support your solution with reason.

A pencil whilst dipped in water in a glass tumbler seems to be bent at the interface of air and water because of phenomenon of refraction of light.

As we understand, different materials have exclusive refractive index. So, the amount of refraction for exceptional media could be special. Hence, pencil will look like bent extra or much less depending on the choices refractive index of the choices medium.

23.How is the choices refractive index of a medium associated with the speed of light? Obtain an expression for refractive index of a medium with respect to some other in phrases of speed of light in these two media?

Speed of mild in medium and refractive index of medium are associated as,

Speed of mild inside the medium = speed of light in vacuum / pace of light in the medium

Consider a ray of mild traveling from medium 1 into medium 2.

Let v1 = speed of light in medium 1

v2 = velocity of light in medium 2.

Refractive index of medium 2 with admire to medium 1 = n21

The refractive index of medium 2 with admire to medium 1 is given by way of the ratio of the pace of mild in medium 1 and the pace of mild in medium 2.

n21 = velocity of light in medium 1 / speed of light in medium 2

24. Refractive index of diamond with appreciate to glass is 1.6 and absolute refractive index of glass is 1.five. Find out the choices absolute refractive index of diamond.

Let, refractive index of diamond with recognize to air = n DA = absolute refractive index of diamond.

Refractive index of glass with respect to air = n GA= absolute refractive index of glass.

Refractive index of diamond with respect to glass = n DG

n DG = 1.6 and n GA =1.five

25.A convex lens of focal period 20cm can produce a magnified digital in addition to actual image. Is this a accurate announcement? If yes, wherein shall the object be positioned in every case for acquiring these photos?

The statement is correct as convex lens of focal period 20cm can produce magnified digital and real picture both.

The object should be positioned between recognition F and optical centre O for magnified, virtual and erect image.

The object have to be located among F and 2F for actual, inverted and enlarged picture.

26.Sudha finds out that the choices sharp photo of the window pane of her technology laboratory is formed at a distance if 15cm from the lens. She now attempts to consciousness the constructing seen to her outside the choices window rather than the window pane with out worrying the lens. In which direction will she flow the choices display screen to gain a sharp image of the building? What is the choices approximate focal duration of this lens?

She ought to pass the choices display screen in the direction of the pole lens to acquire a pointy photo of the building.

It is because window pane is mendacity past 2F and convex lens bureaucracy its photograph, on the opposite facet among F and 2F.

When she tries to attention the constructing visible to her out of doors the window (that’s at infinity) then, the choices picture of the constructing is shaped at the focal point.

The approximate focal period of this lens is 15cm.

27.How are electricity and focal duration of a lens related? You are furnished with lenses of focal period 20cm and 40cm, respectively. Which lens will you operate to obtain more convergent light?

The power P of a lens is related to its focal length f by using following relation:

Lens of higher electricity or smaller focal period will converge the choices light rays more. So, the choices lens of awareness length 20cm could be used.

28. Under what situation in an association of aircraft mirrors, incident ray and contemplated ray will usually be parallel to each different, some thing may be angle of prevalence. Show the choices identical with the choices help of diagram.

When two aircraft mirrors are positioned at proper angle with every other, then the choices incident ray and reflected ray will usually be parallel to every different, no matter the choices attitude of occurrence.

29.Draw a ray diagram showing the choices direction of rays of mild while it enters with oblique incidence (i) from air into water ; (ii)from water into air.

Part C : Long Answer Type

30.Draw ray diagrams displaying the choices photograph formation by a concave reflect whilst an object is positioned.

a. Between pole and consciousness of the reflect.

b. Between cognizance and centre of curvature of the replicate.

c. At centre of curvature of the reflect.

d.A little beyond centre of curvature of the replicate.

a.The picture formation with the aid of a concave mirror whilst an object is positioned among pole and cognizance of the reflect.

b.The image formation by way of a concave replicate when an item is located among recognition and centre of curvature of the mirror.

c.The photo formation with the aid of a concave reflect while an object is placed among awareness and centre of curvature of the choices reflect at centre of curvature of the reflect.

d.The photograph formation through a concave replicate when an item is a bit beyond centre of curvature of the replicate.

e.The photo formation by way of a concave reflect when the choices object is at infinity.

31.Draw ray diagrams showing the photo formation by way of a convex lens whilst a item is placed.

a.Between optical centre and focus of the lens

b.Between consciousness and two times the choices focal duration of the lens

c.At twice the choices focal length of the lens

e.At the point of interest of the lens

a.The enlarged, virtual and erect photograph paperwork beyond 2F1 inside the equal facet of object while the item is located among optical centre and awareness F1 of the lens.

b.The enlarged, real and inverted photo bureaucracy past attention 2F2 on the alternative side of the item when the item is located among awareness F1 and twice the focal period of the choices lens.

c.The actual and inverted picture of equal of the size of object paperwork at awareness 2F2 on the alternative side of the object while the item is located at twice the choices focal period of the lens.

d.The actual, inverted and notably reduced image forms at consciousness F2 on the other aspect of the choices object whilst the choices object is located at infinity.

e.The actual, inverted and tremendously magnified photo paperwork at infinity on the opposite aspect of the choices item while the item is placed at the focus of the choices lens

32.Write laws of refraction. Explain the choices equal with the choices help of ray diagram, whilst a ray of light passes thru a rectangular glass slab.

Laws of refraction of light are

The ray diagram is as proven below:

In the choices glass slab, the choices emergent rays are parallel to the incident ray because the quantity of bending of the ray of light at the other parallel confronted of square glass slab are identical and contrary, so that emergent ray is parallel to incident ray.

33.Draw ray diagrams displaying the choices photograph formation with the aid of a concave lens when an object is located the focus of the choices lens

b.among awareness and two times the focal period of the lens

c.past two times the focal period of the lens

a.The image formation by way of a concave lens when an item is at the focus of the choices len

b.The picture formation via a concave lens while an item is between awareness and two times the focal duration of the choices len

c.The photo formation by a concave lens while an item is beyond twice the focal period of the choices lens.

34.Draw ray diagrams displaying the photo formation by a convex replicate while an item is positioned finite distance from the reflect

a.The ray diagram is as follows

b.The ray diagram is given underneath

35.The image of a candle flame formed with the aid of a lens is obtained on a display placed on the alternative side of the choices lens. If the choices image is 3 times the dimensions of the flame and the space among lens and picture is 80 cm, at what distance should the candle be positioned from the lens? What is the nature of the picture at a distance of 80 cm and the lens?

36.Size of photo of an item by way of a reflect having a focal duration of 20 cm is found to be reduced to 1/3rd to its length. At what distance, the choices object has been placed from the reflect? What is the choices nature of the choices image and the choices replicate?

Here, it is not given whether or not the lens is concave of convex. So we will do calculations for both styles of replicate.

Focal length, f= – 20 cm

Since, magnification, m= -v/u

Magnification, m =-1/3 = -v/u

Using reflect system we’ve

u=4f = four(-20) = -80 cm

The item should be placed at a distance 80 cm from the concave mirror.

Focal duration, f= 20 cm

Since m = v/u

the usage of replicate system, we’ve 1/v + 1/u = 1/f

1/f = -3/u + 1/u = -2/u

u = -2f = -2 (20) = -40 cm

Hence, object ought to be positioned at a distance 40cm from the choices pole of convex replicate to shape erect, virtual and faded photograph.

37. Define electricity of a lens. What is its unit? One student uses a lens of focal duration 50cm and any other of -50 cm. What is the nature of the choices period and its power utilized by every of them?

Power of lens is described as the choices capability of a lens to bend the mild rays. It is given by using the reciprocal of focal period of the lens in meter. Its unit is dioptre.

Focal duration f=50 cm, then P = one hundred/f =one hundred/50 = 2D , lens is convex.

If focal period f= -50 cm, then P = 100/f = one hundred/-50 = -2D, lens is concave.

38. A scholar targeted the picture of a candle flame on a white display screen the use of a convex lens. He stated down the placement of the choices candle, screen and the choices lens as under

Position of candle = cm

Position of convex tens = cm

Position of the choices screen = 88.0 cm

Let f be the choices local length of the convex lens.

The distance of item need to be measured from pole of the choices lens.

Distance of candle = function of convex lens – position of candle = 50 -12 = 38 cm

Now, via signal conference, distance of candle (or object) u = – 38 cm

Similarly, distance of candle’s image = role of the screen – position of convex lens = 88 – 50 = 38 cm

By signal convention, distance of candle’s photo = v = + 38 cm

Then, new object distance = position of convex lens c role of candle = 50 -31 = 19

By signal conference, u = -19 cm

Now, focal length of the convex lens = 19 cm. It method, the candle lays at the focal point of lens, for this reason its photograph is fashioned at infinity.

Chapter eleven : Human Eye and Colourful World

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.A person cannot see surprisingly objects stored past 2m. This illness can be corrected by the use of a lens of strength.

As the individual with myopia makes use of a concave lens.

2.A student sitting on the remaining bench can examine the choices letters written on the choices blackboard however isn’t always able to examine the choices letters written in his text book. Which of the following statements is correct?

a.The near point of his eyes has receded away

b.The near factor of his eyes has come towards him.

c.The a ways factor of his eyes has come in the direction of him.

d.The a ways factor of his eyes has receded away.

The pupil is laid low with hypermetropia in which remote pics are clean however the close by pics are blurry.

3.A prism ABC (with BC as base) is located in specific orientation. A narrow beam of white mild is incident on the choices prism as proven is figure. In which of the following cases, after dispersion, the choices third colour from the choices pinnacle corresponds to the colour of the choices sky?

Inverted position of prism (ii) gives the choices same colour at third pinnacle as that of the choices sky.

four.At noon the choices solar appears white as

a.light is least scattered

b.all of the colors of the choices white mild are scattered away colour is scattered the maximum

d.crimson shade is scattered the maximum

Sun is at once over head and daylight journey extraordinarily shorter distance causing only little of the blue and violet colorations to be scattered.

five.Which of the subsequent phenomon of light are involved within the formation of rainbow?

a.Reflection, refraction and dispersion

b.Refraction, dispersion and overall internal mirrored image

c.Refraction, dispersion and internal mirrored image

d.Dispersion, scattering and total inner mirrored image

When sunlight falls on tiny water droplets, rainbow is formed through dispersion, refraction and inner reflection of sunlight.

6.Twinkling of stars is due to atmospheric

a.Dispersion of mild by way of water droplets

b. Refraction of light by means of one of a kind layers of various refractive indices

c. Scattering of light by using dust particles

d. Internal mirrored image of mild by way of clouds

The twinkling of a celebrity is due to atmospheric refraction of mild of stars

7.The clear sky appears blue, because

a. blue light receives absorbed inside the ecosystem

b. ultraviolet radiations are absorbed inside the atmosphere

c. violet and blue lighting get scattered greater than lights of all other colorings by using the environment

d. light of all different colors is scattered extra than the choices violet and blue shade lights by means of the surroundings.

The molecules in the air scatter blue mild greater than crimson mild.

8. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the propagation of light of various colorations of white mild in air?

a.Red mild moves quickest

b.Blue light actions quicker than inexperienced light

c.All the colours of the choices white light move with the equal speed

d.Yellow light moves with the choices suggest pace as that of the choices purple and the choices violet mild.

Speed of light is a regular fee regardless of its shade.

9.The risk signals established at the choices top of tall homes are red in shade. These may be easily seen from a distance due to the fact among all other colorings, the purple mild scattered the most via smoke or fog

b. is scattered the least by way of smoke or fog

c. is absorbed the choices least via smoke or fog

d.movements fastest in air

Red color is scattered the least by way of smoke or fog because of its biggest wavelength.

10. Which of the subsequent phenomena contributes drastically to the reddish look of the solar at sunrise or sunset?

a.Dispersion of mild

b.Scattering of light

c.Total internal reflection of mild

d.Reflection of mild from the earth

Red shade is scattered the choices least by way of due to its largest wavelength.

11. The bluish shade of water in deep sea is because of

a.The presence of algae and other plants determined in water

b.Reflection of sky in water

c.Scattering of light

d.Absorption of mild by the sea

The pleasant debris in water scatter specifically blue mild having shortest wavelength.

12.When mild rays enter the eye, most of the choices refraction happens at the choices

b.outer floor of the choices cornea

The obvious, anterior portion of outer layer of eyeball is named as cornea which reasons most of the bending of incident mild rays, i.e refraction, to lead them to converge which in flip causes image formation on retina.

thirteen. The focal duration of the eye lens will increase when eye muscle tissues

a.are relaxed and lens becomes thinner

b.agreement and lens turns into thicker

c. are relaxed and lens turns into thicker

d. settlement and lens will become thinner

The focal length of the attention lens increases while eye muscle mass comfortable and will become thinner.

14.Which of the following declaration is accurate?

a.A character with myopia can see distant gadgets genuinely.

b.A person with hypermetropia can see nearby objects in reality.

c.A person with myopia can see nearby gadgets in reality.

d. A character with hypermetropia can not see remote items truly.

Nearsightedness, or myopia is incapacity to look the choices a long way positioned gadgets truely.

Part B : Short Answer Type

15.Draw ray diagrams each displaying

(i) myopic eye and

sixteen.A student sitting in the back of the choices study room can not read sincerely the choices letters written on the choices blackboard. What advice will a doctor given to her? Draw ray diagram for the correction of this illness.

Student is having myopia which is as a result of elongation of eyeball resulting in focusing of photo in the front of retina. Thus, the choices distant photographs are blurry however the nearby images are clear.

Wearing of concave lens diverge the mild rays to assist the choices image to be focused on the retina; myopia is corrected the usage of the choices concave lens.

17.How can we see nearby and also the distant items surely?

Eyes have ability to adjust its focal period that’s referred to as strength of accomodation and we are able to see nearby and also the distant objects certainly. Relaxation of muscle mass makes the choices lens thinner and its focal duration will increase to make us see the choices remote objects simply. Contraction of ciliary muscle groups will increase the choices curvature of the eye lens and makes the eye lens thicker. Consequently, the choices focal length of the attention lens decreases. This enables us to look nearby items without a doubt.

18. A individual wishes a lens of power -4.5D for correction of her vision.

a. What form of disorder in vision is she laid low with?

b. What is the choices focal period of the choices corrective lens?

c. What is the nature of the choices corrective lens?

a.The bad power of lens suggests that she have to be stricken by myopia.

b.Power P = -4.5D, focal period f = ?

F = 1/P = 1/-4.5 = -zero.222m = -22.2 cm

c.Myopia is corrected using concave or divergent lens.

19.How will you operate same prisms in order that a slim beam of white light incident on one prism emerges out of the second one prism as white light? Draw the diagram.

When the second one same prism located in an inverted position with admire to the choices first prism, the choices condition is fulfilled.

20.Draw a ray diagram displaying the choices dispersion via a prism when a slim beam of white light is incident on considered one of its refracting surfaces. Also imply the choices order of the colors of the choices spectrum obtained.

21. Is the position of a celebrity as visible via us its proper position? Justify your answer.

Answer : No, mild of stars enters the choices earth’s surroundings and undergoes refraction continuously before reaching the choices earth. The atmospheric refraction takes vicinity in beneath gradually changing refractive index. Since, superstar mild is bent closer to the choices normal; famous person appears barely higher than the choices real function.

22.Why will we see a rainbow inside the sky handiest after rainfall?

Raindrops present in ecosystem after rainfall serve as prism and refract, disperse and internally replicate the incident sunlight followed with the aid of very last refraction. The complete collection of dispersion and internal mirrored image ends in formation of rainbow after rainfall in sky.

23.Why is the color of the clean sky blue?

It is due to Rayleigh scattering of sunlight. The molecules in the air scatter blue mild more than pink mild as blue mild has shortest wavelength compared to that of pink light which has approximately 1.eight times greater than blue mild.

24. What is the choices distinction in colors of the choices solar found all through sunrise or sunset and midday? Give reason behind every.

During dawn or sunset, the sun appears reddish due to the fact at this degree, sun rays tour longer distance in surroundings and the red light having largest wavelength is scattered the least. Sun is immediately over head and daylight journey extraordinarily shorter distance causing simplest little of the choices blue and violet colors to be scattered.

Part C : Long Answer Type

25.Explain the choices shape and functioning of the human eye. How can we see close by in addition to remote items?

Structure of human eye: Cornea is the transparent window of eye that serves in refraction of most of the light rays closer to the retina. Iris is the choices colored part of the attention that controls the amount of light by way of regulating the student size. Pupil is a hollow shaped commencing in the middle of the eye. Retina is the choices innermost layer of the eye and contains an outer pigmented layer and an inner worried layer. It has image receptors (rods and cones). Optic nerve includes nerve fibres from innermost layer of retina and serves to transmit impulse to mind. Eye lens is made up of a fibrous, jelly-like material and transparent shape. It serves to shape an inverted actual image of the item on the choices retina. Vitreous humour is obvious, semi-solid structure that supports the attention ball.

Functioning of human eye:

Light enters the attention via scholar after which the eye lens converges these light rays on the choices retina. An inverted actual photograph of the choices object is shaped on the retina and picture-electric alerts are to mind via the choices optic nerves. The brain reconstruct erect photograph of objects and we are able to see the items.

We are capable of see close by as well as remote items because of the attention’s capacity to modify its focal duration which is called strength of lodging. Relaxation of muscle mass makes the choices lens thinner and its focal period will increase to make us see the choices distant gadgets sincerely. Contraction of ciliary muscle groups will increase the curvature of the eye lens and makes the attention lens thicker. Consequently, the choices focal duration of the attention lens decreases. This permits us to see nearby objects without a doubt.

26.When can we bear in mind a person to be myopic and hypermetropic? Explain using diagrams how the choices defects related to myopic and hypermetropic eye can be corrected?

Myopia : This eye illness is resulting from elongation of eyeball which ends up in focusing of the picture in the front of retina. This causes formation of blurry snap shots of the choices distant images however the close by snap shots are clean.

Correction of Myopia: Wearing of concave lens diverge the choices light rays to help the photograph to be centered on the retina, as a result myopia is corrected using the choices concave lens.

Hypermetropia : Loss of flexibleness or too quick eyeball causes focusing of photo behind the retina. In both cases, distant photographs are clean however the nearby photographs are blurry and the choices condition is termed as hypermetropia.

Correction of hypermetropia: Wearing a convex lens (plus powered) in front of a hypermetropic eye movements the choices photo ahead and focuses it effectively on the choices retina.

27.Explain the choices refraction of mild via a triangular glass prism using a labelled ray diagram. Hence, outline the choices angle of deviation.

The light ray PE enters from air to glass (rarer to denser medium) at floor AB and consequently, bends closer to the ordinary. The refracted ray EF now exits from glass and enters air (from denser to rarer medium) and consequently, bends faraway from the choices normal. Extrapolation of incident and emergent ray offers the choices angle of deviation.

28. How can we provide an explanation for the choices reddish look of sun at dawn or sundown? Why does it no longer seem crimson at noon?

It is resulting from Rayleigh scattering of daylight. The molecules in the air scatter blue light greater than red mild as blue mild has shortest wavelength in comparison to that of purple mild which has approximately 1.8 instances extra than blue light. Sky seems blue. During sunrise or sundown, the sun looks reddish due to the fact at this level, solar rays travel longer distance in surroundings and blue and green mild (having shortest wavelength) of seen spectrum is scattered away absolutely while the choices purple light having biggest wavelength is scattered the choices least.

Sun is without delay over head and daylight travel fairly shorter distance causing handiest little of the blue and violet colorings to be scattered.

29.Explain the choices phenomenon of dispersion of white light thru a pitcher prism, the use of appropriate ray diagram.

Splitting of light into its constituent colours is called dispersion. When a slim beam of white light falls on a triangular glass prism, mild of various colors have one-of-a-kind refractive indices in glass. However, the speed of light is same regardless of its colors. Different refractive indices of different colorings of light lead to their special bending sample. This causes splitting of white mild into mild of 7 colorings referred to as as VIBGYOR. V= violet, I= indigo, B=blue, G=green, Y= yellow, O=orange, R=pink.

The light of purple colour bends the least on passing via the prism and looks at the choices top at the same time as violet colour bends via most perspective and appears at backside.

30.How does refraction take location within the ecosystem? Why do stars twinkle but now not the planets?

Optical densities of air particles alternate with changing peak. This in turn produce distinct sample of refraction of mild by the earth’s ecosystem. The continuously changing bodily conditions air produce different sample of refraction of mild stars. The extra the refraction is, the brighter the big name look. The lesser the choices refraction is, the choices dimmer the famous person look. This one of a kind refraction pattern thru exclusive air layers makes stars to appearance twinkling.

The planets are present a whole lot in the direction of the earth compared to stars which makes planets to appear to be an prolonged sources of light, no longer like a point-sized sources of light as stars appear. This consequences in average of least and most refraction as 0 making the choices planets to appearance stationary not twinkling as stars

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.A cell, a resistor, a key and an ammeter are arranged as shown within the circuit diagrams of figure. The present day recorded inside the ammeter might be

a.Maximum in (i)

b.Maximum in (ii)

c.Maximum in (iii)

d.Same in all of the cases

In series connections the order of elements within the circuit will now not have an effect on the amount of contemporary flowing within the circuit.

2.In the subsequent circuits, warmth produced in the resistor or aggregate of resistors linked to a 12V battery will be

a.Same in all the instances

b.Maximum in case (i)

c.Maximum in case (ii)

d.Maximum in case (iii)

3.Electrical resistivity of a given metallic twine relies upon upon

d.nature of the choices fabric

The resistivity of a fabric is steady for a particular temperature at a consistent temperature. Resistivity of fabric does no longer rely upon duration, thickness and shape of the material. It best relies upon on the choices temperature.

four.A current of 1 A is drawn by a filament of an electric powered bulb. Number of electron passing via a move-section of the choices filament in sixteen seconds could be roughly

five.Identify the circuit wherein the electrical components had been nicely related.

Essential conditions are vital when electric additives are connected

Thus the choices above conditions are glad in case (ii).

6.What is the maximum resistance which may be made using five resistors each of one/5 Ω?

The most resistance is acquired while resistors are linked in series mixture.

Thus equivalent resistance received by using connecting 5 resistors of resistance 1/5 Ω each, in collection = (1/5 + 1/five + 1/5 + 1/5) = 1 Ω

7. What is the choices minimal resistance which can be made the usage of 5 resistors each of one/five Ω?

The minimum resistance is received when resistors are linked in parallel mixture. Thus equal resistance obtained with the aid of connecting five resistors of resistance 1/five Ω every, parallel to every other =

8.The proper representation of collection mixture of cells obtaining most ability is

Maximum ability is received when cells are related in collection such that, negative terminal of the cell is attached to the wonderful terminal of the second mobile and so forth, as shown within the following diagram.

nine.Which of the following represents voltage?

a. Work done / Current x Time

b. Work finished x Charge

c. Work accomplished x Time / Current

d.Work executed x Charge x Time

Work finished = Charge x Potential difference

Work finished = ( Current x Time ) x Potential distinction

Potential difference = work carried out /current x time

10.A cylindrical conductor of duration/ and uniform place of cross segment A has resistance R. Another conductor of period 2l and resistance R of the choices equal fabric has place of cross-section.

11.A scholar consists of out an experiment and plots the V-I graph of three pattern of nichrome wire with resistances R1, R2 and R3 respectively as shown in determine. Which of the subsequent is proper?

a.R1 = R2 = R3

b. R1 > R2 > R3

c.R3 > R2 > R1

d. R2 > R3 > R1

Slope of VI graph is proportional to one/Resistance.

It way while slope will be maximum, then resistance can be minimum.

From the discern, we are able to see that, slope of R1 is most; subsequently its resistance can be minimal. As, slope of R3 is minimum so, its resistance can be most. Therefore, R3> R2 > R1

12. If the choices modern/thru a resistor is accelerated by using one hundred% (assume that temperature remains unchanged), the increase in power dissipated may be

If l is contemporary and R is resistance then,

Power, P = I2R

Power in second case, P2 = (2l) 2 R = four I2R

Now growth in dissipated electricity = P2 – P1 = four I2R – I2R = 3 I2R

Percentage increase in dissipated strength = three P1 / P1 x a hundred = 300 %

thirteen.The resistivity does no longer change if

a.the cloth is changed

b.the temperature is changed

c.the choices form of the choices resistor is changed

d.both fabric and temperature are modified

The resistivity depends on the material and the choices temperature. It does not relies upon on size of resistor.

14.In an electrical circuit three incandescent bulbs. A, B and C of score 40W, 60W and 100W, respectively are connected in parallel to an electric powered source. Which of the subsequent is likely to take place concerning their brightness?

a.Brightness of all of the bulbs might be the choices equal

b.Brightness of bulb A can be the maximum

c.Brightness of bulb B will be extra than that of A

d.Brightness of bulb C might be much less than that of B

We realize that electricity is defined as fee of doing paintings. A bulb consumes electric powered energy and produces warmth and mild. Now, bulb with extra strength score will produce greater warmness and mild or we are able to say that power score of bulb is without delay proportional to the brightness produced through bulb. Therefore, brightness of bulb B with electricity rating 60W might be more than the choices brightness of bulb A having strength score as 40W.

15. In an electrical circuit, two resistors of 2 and 4 respectively are connected in collection to a 6V battery. The warmness dissipated with the aid of the four resistor in 5s can be

Here, first resistor R1 = 2Ω

And 2nd resistor R2 = 4 Ω

Voltage of cellular, V = 6V

Time taken = t = 5s

Total resistance of the circuite = R = R1 +R2 = 2 + 4 = 6 Ω

Current I = V/R = 6/6 = 1A

Heat dissipated via the choices four Ω resistor in 5s is given as,

H= 1 x 4 x 5 = 20J

16.An electric powered kettle consumes 1KW of electrical strength whilst operated at 220 V. A fuse cord of what rating ought to be used for it?

Here strength P = 1KW = 1000W

Now I= P/V = a thousand/220 = four.5A

Now rating of fuse twine have to be slightly extra than 4.5A i.e five A.

17.Two resistors of resistance 2 and four whilst connected to a battery can have

a. identical current flowing through them while connected in parallel

b. same contemporary flowing via them while connected in collection

c. same potential distinction throughout them while connected in series

d. different ability difference across them while related in parallel

Explanation : In collection combination of resistor, the current thru both the choices resistor are same but potential difference throughout each may be one of a kind. In parallel aggregate current across each resistor may be extraordinary however the capability difference could be same.

18.Unit of electrical electricity may also be expressed as

Electric energy = Voltage x cutting-edge

SI Unit of present day = Ampere

So, unit of electric strength is likewise given via, volt ampere.

Part B : Short Answer Type

19. A toddler has drawn the electric circuit to study Ohm’s law as shown in figure. His trainer told that the choices circuit diagram desires correction. Study the circuit diagram and redraw it after making all corrections.

Ammeter is hooked up in parallel with R.

Ammeter should be linked in collection.

Signs of the terminals of voltmeter aren’t noted and that of ammeter aren’t accurate.

Signs of the terminals of voltmeter want to be referred to and that of ammeter must be corrected.

Voltmeter linked in collection with R.

Voltmeter connected in Parallel with R.

Current is coming out from negative terminal and going into negative terminal once more.

Direction of contemporary and polarity of mobile wishes to be corrected.

Cells aren’t connected in collection nicely.

Cells must be linked in series and that too properly.

The accurate diagram is as shown beneath:

20. Three 2 resistors, A, B and C are connected as proven in figure. Each of them dissipates strength and can with stand a maximum energy of 18W without melting. Find the choices maximum present day that can glide thru the choices 3 resistors?

Here, first resistor in the direction of modern-day R=2

Maximum electricity 2 resistor can face up to Pmax = 18W

Let maximum current via 2Ω resistance be lmax

Now, power P = I2R

The most cutting-edge which can bypass via 2 Ω resistance is 3A.

As resistances of B and C are identical, consequently, 3 ampere modern ( or maximum present day passing thru resistor 2 Ω) after passing through the node will divide similarly.

Therefore, maximum present day from B and C will be three/2 = 1.5 A.

21.Should the resistance of an ammeter be low or excessive? Give cause.

The resistance of an ammeter need to be low. This is due to the fact an ammeter is hooked up in collection with the circuit for the choices dimension of electric contemporary. In case, its resistance is excessive, then some amount of current might also lost in heating it leading to the incorrect studying. An best ammeter is one which has zero resistance.

22. Draw a circuit diagram of an electric circuit containing a mobile, a key, an ammeter, a resistor of 2 in collection with a mixture of resistors (four each) in parallel and a voltmeter across the parallel mixture. Will the choices potential difference throughout the two resistors be the same as that throughout the choices parallel combination of four resistors? Give motive.

The required determine is as proven underneath:

The equal resistance of two 4Ω resistances is equal to 2Ω. This mixture is connected to consequently, 2 Ω resistance in collection.

Hence, the whole voltage drop is equal throughout 2 resistor and the parallel aggregate of two resistors, cellular of 4.

23. How does use of a fuse wire shield electric home equipment?

An electric fuse is a safety tool used to shield circuits and appliances by way of stopping the drift of any unduly excessive electric powered modern-day. It works on the choices principle of the choices heating impact of electric contemporary.

It is made from cloth having low melting point and linked in collection with the circuit. When present day passing thru the fuse exceeds a sure restrict then it melts. Due to which the choices circuit breaks and modern stops flowing.

24. What is electrical resistivity? In a series electrical circuit comprising a resistor made from a metallic twine, the ammeter reads 5A. The reading of the choices ammeter decreases to half whilst the period pf the wire is doubled. Why ?

If l is the duration of the conductor, A its region of pass phase and R its general resistance then,

Where, is a regular of proportionality and is referred to as the electric resistivity of the choices cloth of the conductor. The SI unit of resistivity is ohm meter. It is a feature assets of the choices material. The resistivity of a cloth varies with temperature.

Let l= initial length of the conductor, = electric resistivity of the choices fabric, A = cross sectional region, then

So, if preliminary studying of ammeter is/then after adjustments it becomes l/2.

25.What is the economic unit of electrical strength? Represent it in phrases of joules.

The industrial unit of electrical energy is kilowatt hour. It is written as kWh.

1 kWh = 1kW x h = 1000W x 3600s = three.6 x 106J.

26. A contemporary of 1A glide in a sequence circuit containing an electric lamp and a conductor of five when linked to a 10V battery. Calculate the resistance of the electric lamp.

Now, if a resistance of 10 is hooked up in parallel with this collection combination, what alternate(if any) in modern flowing via five conductor and capability difference across the choices lamp will take location? Give reason.

The situation given in query is proven inside the determine given below:

Here, modern i= 1A

Resistance of conductor, R=5

Resistance of lamp, RL = ?

Total resistance in the circuit, RT = V/I = 10/1 =10Ω

Now, RT = Rl + R

Potential distinction throughout the choices lamp = IRL = 1 x 5 = 5V

Now 10Ω resistances is attached in parallel with total resistance RT, then RTotal could be the overall resistance and is given as:

Now both the choices branches have 10 Ω resistance, so the choices incoming contemporary from the choices battery will divide similarly in both the choices branches.

Hence, current via 5 Ω resistance and lamp = 2/2 = 1 ampere

Now, contemporary through lamp is 1V consequently, potential difference throughout the choices lamp = contemporary thru lamp x capacity distinction across lamp = 1×5 = 5V.

27.Why is parallel association used in domestic writing?

Parallel arrangement is used in domestic wiring because of the following reasons:

28. B1, B2 and B3 are 3 same bulbs related as proven in parent. When all the bulbs glow, a modern of 3A is recorded through the ammeter A.

(i) What happens to the choices glow of the other bulbs when the bulb B1 receives fused?

(ii) What takes place to the choices analyzing of A1, A2, A3 and A. When the choices bulbs B2 gets fused?

(iii)How a lot energy is dissipated within the circuit whilst all the three bulbs glow collectively?

Let Req is the internet resistance of mixture of 3 bulbs in parallel then,

All bulbs are same in order that they have to have same resistance.

Let R is the resistance of each bulb and all bulbs are connected in parallel subsequently,

Current through every bulb,

Now net present day, l = l1 + l2 +l3 = 1 + zero + 1 = 2A

Thus contemporary in ammeter A1 = 1 ampere

Current in ammeter, A2 = zero

Current in ammeter, A3 = 1 ampere

Current in ammeter, A = 2 amper

Part C : Long Answer Type

29. Three incandescent bulb of 100 W every are related in series in an electric circuit. In any other set of 3 bulbs of the equal wattage are related in parallel to the equal supply.

a.Will the choices bulb inside the circuits glow with the choices equal brightness? Justify your solution.

b.Now allow one bulb in both the choices circuits get fused. Will the rest of the choices bulbs retain to glow in each circuit? Give purpose.

a.The conditions given in questions is proven inside the discern given under:

Let us count on that the choices resistance of every bulb is R and capability distinction is V.

Equivalent resistance in series mixture = Req = R + R + R = 3R.

Let modern thru each bulb in series combination be I1.

Now, energy consumptions throughout every bulb in series aggregate is,

In case of parallel circuit,

Resistance of every bulb = R

Voltage throughout each bulb = V

Power intake of every bulb in parallel mixture is

From equations (i) and (ii), we’ve got

So, brightness of each bulb in parallel mixture will increase. Each bulb will glow three times brighter to that of every bulb in series combination.

b. If one bulb gets fused in collection combination then, circuit receives broken and modern stops flowing and ultimate bulb don’t glow.

If one bulb receives fused in collection aggregate then, equal voltage keep to act on the choices ultimate voltage and hence, other bulbs retain to glow with equal brightness.

According to Ohm’s regulation the electrical modern flowing thru a conductor is immediately proportional to the choices capacity difference implemented across its ends supplied the physical conditions together with temperature and many others stays unchanged.

Let V be the potential difference carried out across the ends of conductor via which cutting-edge l flows, then in step with Ohm’s regulation.

Ohm’s law can be demonstrated experimentally by means of the choices hobby given below:

Ohm’s regulation does no longer maintain beneath all situations as it is essentially now not a fundamental law this means that it has exceptions. Following are the choices conditions when Ohm’s regulation does not preserve:

31. what is electric resistivity of a material? What is its unit? Describe an experiment to take a look at the choices factors on which the resistance of carrying out wire depends.

If l is the length of the conductor, A its place of go section and R its general resistance then,

Where, ρ is a steady of proportionality and is known as the electrical resistivity of the material of the conductor. The SI unit of resistivity is Ohm meter.

Experiment to take a look at the choices elements on which the choices resistance of undertaking wires rely

32. How will you infer with the choices assist of an test that the same current flows thru each a part of the circuit containing three resistances in collection related to a battery?

Suppose 3 resistance are R1, R2 and R3. We will connect those resistances in series with an ammeter, key and a battery of regarded voltage as shown in the determine given beneath.

Now we will switch the position of ammeter between R1 and R2, among R2 and R3, after R3 and observe the studying in every case by way of remaining and establishing the key. We will locate that the analyzing in each case will be same in all instances.

33. How will you finish that the same capacity difference (voltage) exists throughout three resistors connected in a parallel arrangement to a battery?

Suppose 3 resistances are R1, R2 and R3. We will join these resistances in parallel with an ammeter (A), a voltmeter (V), a plug key (K) and a battery of acknowledged voltage as shown in figure given underneath.

We will near the key K and file the ammeter and voltmeter readings.

Now we can open the key and transfer the position of voltmeter and ammeter as display within the determine given below.

We will near the choices switch and notice the choices readings. Similarly, we can transfer the position of voltmeter to resistances R2 and R3 and observe the readings.

We will find that readings of ammeter maintains on converting however readings of voltmeter in all instances nearly stay equal in all cases.

34.What is Joule’s heating effect? How can it’s proven experimentally? List its 4 programs in daily lifestyles.

When an electric current is surpassed thru a excessive resistance cord, like nichrome cord, the resistance cord will become particularly warm and produces warmness. This impact is referred to as heating effect of current or Joule’s law of heating.

It states that the choices warmth H produced by means of a resistor of resistance R due to cutting-edge flowing via it for time t is H = I2Rt

A easy experiment to demonstrate heating effect of cutting-edge is that if we turn on the choices bulb for an extended time period then it turns into warm.

Four utility of Joule’s heating impact in each day life are:

35. Find out the subsequent in the electric powered circuit given in figure:

a. Effective resistance of 8Ω resistors in the combination.

b. Current flowing through 4Ω resistors.

c. Potential distinction across 4Ω resistances.

d. Power dissipated in four Ω resistors.

e. Difference in ammeter readings, if any.

a.Here, 8 Ω resistances are connected in parallel so their powerful resistance are

Here, cutting-edge thru resistor might be same as present day from battery = 1 ampere

c.Potential distinction (V) throughout four resistors (R) is given via V = IR = 1 x four = 4V

d. Power dissipated across four Ω resistor, P = I2R = 12 x four = 4W

e. There isn’t any distinction within the readings of ammeters A1 and A2 as same amount of cutting-edge flows via the choices ammeter.

Chapter thirteen : Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Choose the incorrect announcement from the following concerning magnetic traces of subject

a.The route of magnetic discipline at a point is taken to be the choices path wherein the north pole of a magnetic compass needle factors.

b.Magnetic subject strains are closed curves

c.If magnetic field traces are parallel and equidistant, they represent zero field strength.

d.Relative energy of magnetic discipline is proven by the choices degree of closeness of the field strains.

Parallel and equidistant magnetic field traces represent uniform and consistent field electricity.

2.If the key within the association as proven beneath is taken out (the choices circuit is made open) and magnetic subject lines are drawn over the choices horizontal plane ABCD, the choices strains are

b. Elliptical in shape

c. Straight strains parallel to each other

d. Concentric circles near the choices factor O however of elliptical shapes as we cross far from it.

If key’s taken out then modern-day will prevent and no magnetic area exists due to the choices conductor. Therefore, at the factor O, there could be earth’s magnetic discipline and they’ll be immediately traces parallel to each different

three.A round loop placed in a aircraft perpendicular to the choices plane of paper consists of a modern-day while the choices key’s ON. The contemporary as seen from factors A and B (inside the aircraft of paper and on the choices axis of the choices coil) is anti-clockwise respectively. The magnetic discipline strains point from B to A. The N pole of the resultant magnet is on the face close to

c. A if the choices modern is small and B if the choices present day is large

d. B if the current is small and A if the choices contemporary is big

When we see from factor A, the direction of modern can be anticlockwise and whilst we see the choices course of present day from point B then it will likely be clockwise. It means cutting-edge is flowing as proven within the determine given underneath.

By proper-hand thumb rule, the magnetic subject emerge from north pole and merge at the south pole outside the magnet.

Hence, in this circuit face A constitute north pole and face B represents south pole.

4. For a cutting-edge in a protracted immediately solenoid N and S poles are created at the two ends. Among the following statements, the incorrect statement is

a. The field strains within the solenoid are within the form of straight lines, which indicates that the choices magnetic subject is the choices same in any respect points in the solenoid.

b. The robust magnetic field produced in the solenoid may be used to magnetize a piece of magnetic material like tender iron, while positioned in the coil.

c. The pattern of the choices magnetic area associated with the choices solenoid isn’t the same as the sample of the choices magnetic subject around a bar magnet.

d. The N and S poles trade position when the path of cutting-edge via the choices solenoid is reversed.

Option a, b and d are accurate. Only alternative c is inaccurate because the sample of magnetic fields because of solenoid and bar magnet is sort of same.

five. A uniform magnetic field exists within the plane of paper pointing from left to right as shown in discern. In the sphere an electron and proton flow as shown. The electron and the proton experience.

a. Forces both pointing into the choices plane of paper

b. Forces each pointing out of the aircraft of paper

c. Forces pointing into the choices plane of paper and out of the choices aircraft of paper respectively

d. Force pointing opposite and along the choices route of the uniform magnetic subject respectively.

Direction of contemporary is taken as contrary to the go with the flow of electron or within the course of drift of protons.

In the given parent, the proton and electron are moving in opposite path to each different and in perpendicular to the choices direction of magnetic field. So, contemporary due to both electron and proton are in equal route. Hence, the forces cting on both might be within the same course. By Fleming’s left hand rule the direction pressure is pointing into the choices aircraft of paper.

6. Commercial electric cars do now not use

a. An electromagnet to rotate the choices armature.

b. Effectively huge quantity of turns of accomplishing twine inside the current carrying coil.

c. A everlasting magnet to rotate the armature.

d. A soft iron core on which the choices coil is wound.

An electric powered motor is a tool that converts electric power into mechanical energy.

An electric motor has an electromagnet in as opposed to everlasting magnet (as everlasting magnet does not produce strong magnetic discipline).

Large wide variety of turns of the choices accomplishing twine inside the cutting-edge sporting coil to produce stronger magnetic subject.

It also has a smooth iron middle on which the coil is wound also called armature.

7. In the choices association shown if parent, there are coils wound on a non-carrying out cylindrical rod. Initially, the key isn’t always inserted. Then the choices secret’s inserted and later eliminated. Then

a. The deflection within the galvanometer stays 0 all through.

b. There is a non permanent deflection within the galvanometer but it dies out rapidly and there may be no effect whilst the secret is removed.

c. There are temporary galvanometers deflections that die out shortly, the deflections are in the identical path.

d. There are temporary galvanometers deflection that die out rapidly, the deflections are in contrary guidelines. Thus the choices galvanometer suggests temporary deflections in opposite guidelines.

As the current inside the first coil adjustments, the magnetic area related to it additionally changes. Thus the magnetic field strains round the opposite coin additionally trade. Hence the change in magnetic field traces related to the choices secondary coil is the choices reason of triggered electric powered cutting-edge in it through the process of electromagnetic induction. Due to this reason, a non permanent deflection in galvanometer will be located so one can die out soon whilst the choices current flowing thru first coil attains steady nation.

8. Choose the incorrect assertion.

a. Fleming’s right hand rule is a simple rule to recognise the choices course of triggered contemporary.

b. The proper hand thumb rule is used to locate the choices path of magnetic fields due to present day wearing conductors.

c. The difference among the choices direct and the alternating currents is that the choices direct current always flows in one route, in which as the alternating modern reverses its direction periodically.

d. In India, the AC adjustments route after every 1/50 second.

Here choice a, b and c are information primarily based options and are modern. Option d is wrong due to the fact the choices frequency of ‘AC’ in India is 50 cycles. So term of AC is 1/50 s. we know that, AC modifications its route after each half time period, i.e., 1/ (2×50) or 1/one hundred s. So in India, the choices AC modifications route after every 1/100 s.

9. A constant contemporary flows in a horizontal twine inside the aircraft of the choices paper from east to west as proven in discern. The route of magnetic subject at a point could be north to south.

a. Directly above the choices cord

b. Directly underneath the wire

c. At a factor located in the plane of the choices paper on the north facet of the choices cord.

d. At a point located inside the aircraft of the choices paper on the choices south side of the wire.

If we observe the direction of magnetic field by means of making use of proper hand thumb rule then, we will locate that the choices route of magnetic discipline is from North to South below the twine.

10. The energy of magnetic area internal an extended modern carrying straight solenoid is

a.More at the ends than at the centre

b. Minimum in the middle

c.Same in any respect factors

d. Found to boom from one give up to the opposite

Inside the choices solenoid, magnetic area traces are parallel to every different for this reason forming a uniform field electricity which shows that the magnetic subject is the equal in any respect factors within the solenoid.

eleven. To convert an AC generator into DC generator

a. Split ring kind commutator should be used

b. Slip rings and brushes should be used

c. A more potent magnetic area has to be used

d. A square twine loop has to be used

AC generator has slip rings whilst the choices DC generator has a split ring kind commutator. To convert an AC generator the choices break up ring kind commutator with which uniderectional modern is obtained.

12. The maximum critical safety method used for defensive home appliances from short circuiting or overloading is

b. Use of fuse

c. Use of stabilizers

d. Use of electrical meter

Use of electrical fuse is the choices most vital technique used for defensive domestic appliances from brief circuiting or overloading.

Generally, skinny wire with low melting having unique rating is hooked up in series with the electric devices. When the current passing through the fuse exceeds a particular price then with the aid of heating effect of current it melts and breaks the choices circuit.

Part B : Short Answer Type

13. A magnetic compass needle is positioned within the plane of paper near point A as proven in discern. In which plane ought to a straight modern carrying conductor be placed so that it passes thru A and there’s no change within the deflation of the compass? Under what situation is the choices deflation most and why?

We realize that after the choices magnetic subject and the choices path of cutting-edge are perpendicular to every other, the choices deflection is most. But while they’re in the equal aircraft, no deflection takes place.

If we location the cutting-edge wearing conductor in the aircraft of paper such that it passes thru A then, the sphere produced with the aid of it’s miles perpendicular to the plane of paper and parallel to the vertical axis of compass needle. As a result there may be no exchange within the deflection of compass needle.

Deflection in compass needle might be maximum whilst the conductor passes via A and is perpendicular to the choices aircraft of paper.

14. Under what conditions permanent electromagnet is acquired if a cutting-edge sporting solenoid is used? Support your solution with the assist of a labelled circuit diagram.

The following situation are required to reap permanent electromagnet while a cutting-edge sporting solenoid is used:

15. AB is a current carrying conductor inside the plane of the choices paper as proven in discern. What are the choices directions of magnetic fields produced by way of it at points P and Q? Given r1 > r2, wherein will the power of the magnetic field be larger?

By applying right hand thumb rule, the path of magnetic discipline is into the plane of the choices paper at P and popping out from the choices aircraft of paper at the choices factor Q.

The significance of magnetic area B is inversely proportional to distance r.

Now r1>r2, or point Q is closer than factor P, so the magnetic field is stronger at factor Q and weaker at point P.

16. A magnetic compass shows a deflection, while positioned close to a cutting-edge sporting wire. How will the choices deflection of the choices compass get affected, if the modern within the twine is improved? Support your solution with a cause.

Magnetic discipline B produced via contemporary-carrying cord is immediately proportional to the choices modern-day (l) flowing through the choices cord. If the choices contemporary is multiplied then the magnetic field produced is more potent and vice-versa. So, deflection within the compass will be extra while the choices cutting-edge flowing thru the wire can be extended.

17. It is hooked up that an electric powered current through a metal conductor produces a magnetic area round it. Is there a comparable magnetic field produced round a skinny beam of transferring (i) alpha debris, (ii) neutrons? Justify your answer.

Magnetic area is produced with the aid of a current carrying conductor because of the motion of price debris or electron.

18. What does the route of thumb imply within the proper hand thumb rule? In what way this rule is different from Fleming’s left hand rule.

According to proper hand thumb rule, the thumb shows the choices route of electrical cutting-edge as shown in the determine given under.

The curled fingers maintaining the choices conductor deliver the route of magnetic strains.

Fleming’s left hand rule gives the route of pressure studies by a cutting-edge carrying straight conductor located in an external magnetic discipline and right here thumb represent pressure on conductor.

19. Meena attracts magnetic area strains of subject near the choices axis of a modern wearing circular loop. As she movements faraway from the centre of the choices round loop she observes that the choices strains hold on diverging. How will you give an explanation for her commentary?

We know that the choices magnetic field produced via a contemporary wearing immediately cord relies upon inversely on the gap from it. Similarly at each point of a contemporary carrying circular loop, the concentric circles representing the magnetic area around it might come to be large and large as we circulate away from the choices wire. By the time we attain at the centre of the circular loop, the arcs of those large circles could appear as directly lines. Every factor on the cord carrying modern would deliver upward push to the choices magnetic subject appearing as straight lines at the choices centre of the choices loop.

Due to this cause, as she moves far from the choices centre of the choices circular loop she observes that the traces continues on diverging.

20. What does the divergence of magnetic area traces near the choices ends of a present day carrying immediately solenoid indicate?

Divergence of magnetic area strains close to the choices ends of a cutting-edge wearing immediately solenoid shows lower in the energy of the magnetic discipline.

21. Name four home equipment wherein an electric powered motor, a rotating device that converts electric strength to mechanical strength, is used as an essential thing. In what respect motors are one of a kind from generators?

The 4 home equipment are : electric powered juicer, electric powered fan, walkman, washing device. The motor is a tool which converts the electrical electricity into mechanical energy, while generator converts mechanical energy into electric strength.

22. What is the choices role of the two accomplishing desk bound brushes in a simple electric powered motor?

The position of carbon brushes is to make contact with the rotating earrings of the commutator and through them to supply current to the coil.

23. What is the difference between a direct modern-day and an alternating current? How oftentimes does AC utilized in India exchange route in a single 2nd?

The route of the choices AC (alternating present day) reverses periodically whereas the choices path of the choices DC (direct modern-day) stays steady with time. The frequency of AC in India is ready 50 Hz whereas of DC it’s far zero.

Therefore, in India AC trade its direction after each 1/100 s so in one 2nd AC modifications its path a hundred times.

24. What is the position of fuse, utilized in collection with any electric equipment? Why need to a fuse with defined score no longer get replaced by means of one with a bigger score?

Fuse is the choices maximum critical protection tool, used for defensive the circuits due to quick-circuiting or overloading of the choices circuits.

The use of an electric fuse prevents the electrical circuit and the equipment from a possible harm with the aid of preventing the choices waft of unduly excessive electric modern. The Joule heating that takes vicinity in the fuse melts it to break the electric circuit. So, a fuse is always related in series with an appliance. If it’s miles related in parallel then it will not have the ability to interrupt the choices circuit and modern-day maintains on flowing.

When a fuse with defined score for a particular equipment is replaced with the aid of one with large score, then it’ll no longer soften as the choices modern exceeds in the twine and brief-circuiting or overloading might also arise.

Part C : Long Answer Type

25. Why does a magnetic compass needle pointing north and south inside the absence of a close-by magnet get deflected while a bar magnet or a contemporary carrying loop is introduced close to it? Describe some salient functions of magnetic traces of subject concept.

In the absence of external discipline best Earth’s magnetic subject act due to which magnetic compass needle pointing north and south direction. When a bar magnet or a current carrying loop is introduced near it, then it produces magnetic area, because of which magnetic fields of the choices compass needle and the choices bar magnet (or current carrying loop) engage with each other inflicting a deflection in the needle.

The salient features of magnetic discipline strains are

26. With the assist of a labelled circuit diagram illustrate the sample of subject strains of the magnetic subject round a contemporary-wearing instantly long carrying out wire. How is the choices right hand thumb rule useful to locate course of magnetic discipline associated with a modern carrying conductor?

A labelled circuit diagram because of a cutting-edge wearing instantly lengthy carrying out twine is proven below.

When modern-day is exceeded through the choices conductor then concentric magnetic field traces could be produced. The electricity of magnetic subject keeps on decreasing as we’re faraway from the choices twine.

We use proper hand thumb rule to find the course of magnetic field.

Right hand thumb rule : If a current carrying conductor is held with the aid of right hand; keeping the choices thumb straight and if the course of electric contemporary is within the path of thumb, then the choices course of wrapping of other arms will display the route of magnetic subject.

27. Explain with the choices help of a labelled diagram the distribution of magnetic subject because of a cutting-edge thru a round loop. Why is it that if a present day wearing coil has n turns the sphere produced at any factor is n times as huge as that produced via a unmarried turn?

Suppose a straight carrying out wire is bent within the form of a round loop and a present day is surpassed via it.

We recognise that the magnetic subject produced by using a cutting-edge- wearing immediately twine depends inversely on the gap from it.

Similarly, at each point of a present day wearing round loop, the choices concentric circles representing the magnetic discipline round it’d grow to be large and lager as we pass far from the choices twine as proven in the figure.

By the time we attain the centre of the choices circular loop, the choices arcs of these massive circles would appear as directly strains.

Every point on the choices cord carrying contemporary might provide rise to the magnetic discipline acting as directly lines at the centre of the loop.

By making use of the proper hand thumb rule, it is simple to test that every phase of the twine contributes to the choices magnetic area traces within the identical course inside the loop.

Now, the choices magnetic area produced by using a cutting-edge carrying cord at a given point relies upon at once on the cutting-edge passing thru it. Therefore, if there may be a round coil having n turns, the field produced is n instances as massive as that produced by way of a single turn. This is due to the fact the choices present day in each circular flip has the same direction, and the sector because of every turn then simply adds up.

28. Describe the choices interest that suggests that a present day-carrying conductor stories a force perpendicular to its duration and the outside magnetic area. How does Fleming’s left-hand rule help up to locate the direction of the pressure appearing on the choices modern-day-sporting conductor?

The hobby is as follows:

Take a small aluminium rod AB. Using connecting wires droop it horizontally from a stand, as shown in determine given under.

Place a robust horse-shoe magnet in this sort of manner that the choices rod lies between the two poles with the choices magnetic field directed upwards. For this positioned the choices North pole of the magnet vertically beneath and south pole vertically above the aluminium rod.

Connect the choices aluminium rod in collection with a battery, a key and a rheostat.

Now pass a modern through the aluminium rod from cease B to give up A.

It is discovered that the rod is displaced in the direction of the left and rod receives displaced.

Reverse the choices path of present day flowing via the rod and have a look at the choices direction of its displacement. It is now towards the choices proper.

29.Draw a labelled circuit diagram of a easy electric motor and give an explanation for its working. In what manner those simple electric cars are exceptional from business automobiles?

An electric powered motor is a rotating device that converts electrical power to mechanical energy. Circuit diagram of a simple electric motor is given below.

An electric motor includes a square coil ABCD of insulated copper cord. The coil is located among the 2 poles of a magnetic subject such that the arm AB and CD are perpendicular to the route of the choices magnetic discipline. The ends of the choices coil are related to the two halves P and Q of a break up ring. The inner sides of those halves are insulated and attached to an axle. The external conducting edges of P and Q contact accomplishing desk bound brushes X and Y, respectively, as proven inside the discern.

Current inside the coil ABCD enters from the choices source battery thru accomplishing brush X and flows lower back to the choices battery via brush Y.

Now the choices cutting-edge in arm AB of the coil flows from A to B. In arm CD it flows from C to D, this is, contrary to the choices direction of modern via arm AB.

On applying Fleming’s left-hand rule for the choices direction of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field as proven within the parent above.

We locate that the pressure performing on arm AB pushes it downwards while the choices pressure appearing on arm CD pushes it upwards. Thus the coil and the axle O installed unfastened to show approximately an axis, rotate anti-clockwise.

At half rotation, Q makes touch with the brush X and P with brush Y. Therefore the choices current inside the coil gets reversed and flows along the choices route DCBA. A device that reverses the course of flow of contemporary through a circuit is known as a commutator. In electric motors, the choices cut up ring acts as a commutator.

The reversal of current additionally reverses the choices course of the force acting on the two hands AB and CD. Thus the choices arm AB of the choices coil that became earlier pushed down is now pushed up and the arm CD formerly driven up is now pushed down.

Therefore the choices coil and the axle rotate half of a flip more inside the same route. The reversing of the contemporary is repeated at each half rotation, giving upward push to a non-stop rotation of the choices coil and to the choices axle.

Commercial vehicles are difference from simple electric powered vehicles in the following methods.

In commercial motor an electromagnet is used in area of everlasting magnet. Commercial automobiles have extra numbers of turns of accomplishing cord in current sporting coil.

Commercial automobiles have soft iron middle on which the choices coil is wound.

30. Explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Describe an test to show that a present day is installation in a closed loop when an external magnetic subject passing via the loop increases or decreases.

The technique, via which a changing magnetic subject in a conductor induces a modern in any other conductor, is called electromagnetic induction. In practise, we are able to set off the choices current in a coil both through moving it in a magnetic field or by means of converting the magnetic discipline round it.

Take two extraordinary coils of copper cord having big range of turns (say forty and ninety turns respectively). Insert them over a non-carrying out cylindrical roll, as proven within the determine given below. Connect the coil 1, having a larger variety of turns, in series with a battery and a plug key.

Also, join the alternative coil-2 with a galvanometer as proven in the discern. Plug in the key. Observe the choices galvanometer. We will look at that the choices needle of the galvanometer immediately jumps to at least one facet and just as fast returns to 0, indicating a non permanent present day in coil-2.

Disconnect coil-1 from the choices battery. You will have a look at that the needle momentarily movements however to the opposite facet. It approach that now the choices modern flows inside the opposite path in coil-2.

31. Describe the running of an AC generator with the help of a labelled circuit diagram. What adjustments must be made in the arrangement to transform right into a DC generator?

The labelled diagram of AC generator is as follows

The working of AC generator is as follows:

An electric powered generator (as shown in determine above) includes a rotating square coil ABCD positioned between the 2 poles of a everlasting magnet. The two ends of this coil are linked to the two jewelry R1 and R2. The internal side of these jewelry is made insulated. The engaging in stationary brushes B1 and B2 are saved pressed separately on the earrings R1 and R2, respectively.

The two jewelry R1 and R2 are internally connected to an axle.

The axle may be routinely rotated from outdoor to rotate the choices coil inside the magnetic subject. Outer ends of the two brushes are linked to the choices galvanometer to show the choices glide of modern inside the given external circuit.

When the axle attached to the two jewelry is turned around such that the choices arm AB actions up (and the arm CD movements down) inside the magnetic discipline produced with the aid of the everlasting magnet. Let us say the coil ABCD is rotated clockwise in the arrangement proven in parent. By making use of Fleming’s right-hand rule, the brought on currents are set up in these palms alongside the directions AB and CD. Thus an prompted contemporary flows in the path ABCD. This means that the choices modern-day inside the external circuit flows from B2 to B1.

After half a rotation, arm CD begins shifting up and AB transferring down. As a end result, the instructions of the brought about currents in each the fingers change, giving upward thrust to the choices net brought about present day inside the path DCBA. The current within the external circuit now flows from B1 to B2. Thus after each half rotation the polarity of the choices current within the respective arms adjustments and an alternating modern is produced.

32. Draw the proper schematic diagram showing common domestic circuits and speak the choices significance of fuse. Why is it that a burnt out fuse should be replaced by using every other fuse of same score?

Schematic diagram of commonplace home circuits is proven beneath:

Fuse is protection tool in a circuit prevents harm to the choices appliances and the circuit due to overloading. A fuse works on Joule heating effect and is connected is collection with the electrical gadgets. Every fuse has a selected rating, it approach that a particular fuse will allow handiest precise amount of present day thru itself. When current exceeds the choices restrict, then the fuse will heat up and soften.

Overloading happens whilst the stay cord and the choices neutral cord come into direct contact. In this type of scenario, the choices current inside the circuit abruptly will increase. This is called quick-circuiting. The use of an electric powered fuse prevents the electric circuit and the equipment from a possible damage by using stopping the go with the flow of unduly high electric powered modern-day. The Joule heating that takes location inside the fuse melts it to interrupt the electrical circuit. Overloading also can occur because of an unintentional hike within the deliver voltage. Sometimes overloading is because of connecting too many home equipment to a single socket.

The burnt out fuse ought to be replaced by means of any other fuse of identical rating due to the fact if a fuse of much less rating is used then it’s going to blow and electric powered appliances will not work. If the fuse of higher rating is used then in case of quick circuit and overloading the choices fuse will not blow up and extra quantity of modern may additionally damage the appliances.

Chapter 14 : Sources of Energy

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the following is a non-renewable source of energy?

Sources of electricity which can be present in constrained quantity and can’t be recycled once used are known as non-renewable sources of energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable supply of strength.

2. Acid rain takes place because

a. solar ends in heating of higher layer of environment.

b. burning of fossil fuels launch oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur inside the environment.

c. electrical charges are produced because of friction among clouds.

d. the choices earth environment contains acids.

Explanation :The oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur which can be launched by using burning fossil fuels from acidic oxides. These cause acid rain which influences our water and soil assets.

3. Fuel utilized in thermal energy plants is

Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt each day in power stations to warmth up water to supply steam which further runs the choices turbine to generate strength.

four. In a hydro energy plant

a. capacity power possessed via saved water is converted into electricity.

b. kinetic electricity possessed with the aid of saved water is transformed into ability power.

c. strength is extracted from water.

d. water is transformed into steam to provide power.

The water saved in dams has ability energy related to it. Potential electricity possessed via saved water is converted into electricity.

five. Which is the choices final source of strength?

Sun is the choices final source of power as a few of the assets (like wind electricity, and so forth) ultimately derive their energy from the solar.

6. Which one of the following styles of strength results in least environmental pollutants in the system of its harness

Solar energy results in least environmental pollution inside the system of its harnessing and usage.

In case of nuclear strength, the choices most important issues of pollution are at the same time as storage and disposal of spent fuels wherein there’s usually a hazard of leakage of radiation.

In case of thermal power, considerable amount of air pollutants is produced.

Even in case of geothermal energy a touch amount of pollution is produced.

7. Ocean thermal electricity is due to

a. electricity stored by means of waves inside the ocean.

b. temperature difference at different tiers within the ocean.

c. strain distinction at unique ranges in the ocean.

d. tides springing up out inside the ocean.

The temperature distinction between the choices water at the floor and water at depths up to two km is 20 K (20oC) or extra. The heat surface water is used to boil a unstable liquid like ammonia. The vapours of the choices liquid are then usedto run the turbine of generator. The bloodless water from the depth of the sea is pumped up and condenses vapour once more to liquid.

8. The primary trouble in harnessing nuclear strength is the way to

b. sustain the choices response

c. remove spent gasoline properly

d. convert nuclear electricity into electric strength

The important risk of nuclear strength technology is the choices garage and disposal of spent or used fuels – the choices uranium still decaying into harmful subatomic debris. Improper nuclear waste storage and disposal result in environmental infection.

9. Which part of the choices solar cooker is accountable for greenhouse effect?

a. Coating with black color within the field.

d. Outer cowl of the solar cooker

Solar cookers are blanketed with a pitcher plate which traps infrared radiations from sunlight and does not allow them to break out. In other words we can say that it presents greenhouse effect. A black floor absorbs more warmth in comparison to a white or a reflecting floor below identical situations. Solar cookers obtain a higher temperature by way of the usage of mirrors to cognizance the rays of the sun.

10. The essential constituent of biogas is

Bio gas is an amazing gas because it includes up to seventy five% methane. It burns with out smoke, leaves no residue like ash in wood, charcoal and coal burning. Its heating capacity is excessive. Biogas is likewise used for lighting fixtures.

11. The strength generated in a windmill

a. is extra in rainy season in view that, damp air would imply more air mass hitting the choices blades.

b. depends on the choices height of the choices tower.

c. relies upon on wind speed.

d. can be multiplied by means of planting tall timber near the tower.

Power generated in a windmill depends on the velocity with which wind is moving.

12. Choose the perfect announcement.

a. Sun can be taken as an inexhaustible supply of electricity.

b. There is endless storage of fossil fuel inside the earth.

c. Hydro and wind power plant life are non-polluting resources of energy.

d. Waste from a nuclear energy plant may be effortlessly disposed off.

The sun has been radiating an massive quantity of electricity at the existing charge for almost 5 billion years and will keep radiating at that price for about 5 billion years more. So, it could be taken as an inexhaustible source of electricity.

Fossil fuels in the earth are found in very restrained amount.

Hydro and wind strength flowers run with the choices assist of air and do not purpose any pollutants.

It is very difficult to dispose waste from a nuclear energy plant.

thirteen. In a hydroelectric energy plant extra electric energy may be generated if water falls from a extra peak because

a. its temperature will increase

b. large quantity of capability energy is transformed into kinetic strength

c. the strength content of water increases with height

d. extra water molecules dissociate into ions

Water at extra peak has more capacity power. When it falls it’ll have more kinetic strength related to it. A larger quantity of capability strength is transformed into kinetic energy due to which more electric powered electricity could be received.

14. Choose the incorrect declaration concerning wind energy.

a. It is anticipated to harness wind power to minimal in open space.

b. The ability strength content material of wind blowing at excessive altitudes is the choices source of wind energy.

c. Wind hitting at the blades of a windmill reasons them to rotate. The rotation as a consequence executed can be utilised in addition.

d. One possible technique of making use of the electricity of rotational movement of the choices blades of a windmill is to run the choices turbine of an electric powered generator.

Maximum wind energy is harnessed in open area subsequently, choice a is wrong.

Moving air have kinetic energy which on hitting at the blades of a windmill reasons them to rotate.

To generate wind power, we require wind at a totally excessive pace. Due to this movement it own kinetic strength and as such they may be able to doing mechanical paintings by means of distinctive feature of its motion.

The power possessed by means of the wind is because of its high speed. When the blowing wind moves across the choices blades of a windmill, it exerts a pressure on them due to which the blades of the windmill begin rotating. This rotational motion of the blades is used to run the turbine of an electric powered generator. Thus, the choice b is the incorrect statement.

15. Choose the wrong assertion.

a. We are recommended to plant more timber that allows you to make certain smooth environment and also provide biomass gasoline.

b. Gobar-fuel is produced when plants, vegetable wastes, and so forth., decompose inside the absence of oxygen

c. The primary ingredient of biogas is ethane and it gives a variety of smoke and additionally produces a variety of residual ash

d. Bio mass is a renewable source of power.

The most important factor of biogas is methane. Except choice c, all different options are correct.

Part B : Short Answer Type

sixteen. What is a superb supply of electricity?

A accurate supply of strength fulfils the subsequent criteria:

17. What is a superb fuel?

A accurate gasoline produces a massive amount of warmth on burning, does not produce a whole lot of smoke, and is without problems available.

18. If you can use any source of power for heating your food, which one might you use and why?

Natural gas can be used for heating and cooking meals due to the fact it is a clean source of power. It does no longer produce large quantity of smoke on burning. Although it is exceptionally inflammable, it is straightforward to use, delivery, and it produces a massive amount of heat on burning.

19. What are the risks of fossil fuels?

The risks of fossil fuels are as follows:

20. Why are we searching at alternate assets of power?

Fossil fuels, which have been historically used by human beings as an power assets, are non-renewable resources of electricity. These assets of energy are restrained and can not replenish on their very own. They are being consumed at a large rate. If this price of intake continues, then the fossil fuels could be exhausted from the Earth. Therefore, we ought to conserve the power resources. Hence, we must look for alternatives resources of electricity.

21. How has the traditional use of wind and water strength been modified for our comfort?

Traditionally, waterfalls have been used as a supply of ability power which was transformed to energy with the assist of mills. Since waterfalls are few in number, water dams had been built in massive numbers. Nowadays, hydro-dams are used to be able to harness potential energy of saved water. In water dams, water falls from a top on the choices turbine, which produces strength.

Earlier, the windmills have been used to harness wind strength to do mechanical work including lifting or drawing water from a nicely. Today, windmills are used to generate energy. In windmills, the choices kinetic energy of wind is harnessed and converted into electricity. The rotatory motion of the choices blades turns the turbine of the electrical generator to generate strength.

22. What are the boundaries of the choices energy that may be received from the choices oceans?

The sorts of power that can be acquired from the sea are tidal strength, wave power and ocean thermal power. There are numerous limitations with a purpose to harness these energies.

Part C : Long Answer Type

23. Which is the procedure used to harness nuclear power nowadays? Explain it in brief.

Nuclear fission procedure in used to harness nuclear electricity in recent times. The fission of an atom of uranium, for example, produces 10 million instances the power produced by using the combustion of an atom of carbon from coal.

In a nuclear fission, the distinction in mass , among the choices original nucleus and the choices product nuclei gets transformed to power E at a rate ruled with the aid of the choices equation E = m c2, in which c is velocity of light.

In a nuclear reactor designed for electric powered electricity technology, such nuclear ‘gasoline’ may be a part of a self-maintaining fission chain reaction that releases energy at a controlled fee. The released strength can be used to produce steam and further generate strength.

24. How can sun power be harnessed? Mention any two barriers in the use of solar power. How are these limitations overcome?

Solar energy may be harnessed directly by way of using solar cooker, sun heater or sun cells. In solar cooker the heat energy by means of solar is used for cooking purposes. In sun heater, warmth electricity is used to warmness the choices water. In solar cells it’s far converted to strength.

Limitations in using sun electricity are as follows:

The above obstacles can be overcome via following ways:

25. Make a listing of traditional and non- conventional resources of electricity. Give a quick description of harnessing one non-conventional supply of strength.

Conventional sources of strength:

Non traditional assets of strength:

Nuclear strength is a non-traditional supply of electricity and may be harnessed with the aid of a system called nuclear fission. The nucleus of a heavy atom (including uranium, plutonium or thorium), when bombarded with low energy neurons, may be cut up aside into lighter nuclei. When that is completed, a super quantity of electricity is released if the mass of the choices unique nucleus is just a little extra than the sum of the masses of the character merchandise. The fission of an atom of uranium, as an instance, produces 10 million instances the choices electricity produced by the choices combustion of an atom of carbon from coal. In a nuclear reactor designed for electric strength era, such nuclear ‘fuel’ may be a part of a self-maintaining fission chain reaction that releases energy at a managed charge. The released power may be used to provide steam and further generate electricity.

26. Why is there a need for harnessing non-conventional source of strength? How can strength be harnessed from the sea in distinctive ways?

The populace of the world is increasing at a totally speedy price due to which needs for electricity is growing day by day. As, fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, are found in a restricted quantity which and are probable to finish sooner or later so the choices want for alternative sources of energy is crucial.

Use of traditional resources of power (coal, petroleum and so forth.) reasons pollution. To reduce pollutants use of non-traditional resources of strength is important.

The power from the ocean energy be harnessed from the sea in distinctive methods.

Due to the gravitational pull of specially the choices moon on the choices spinning earth, the choices degree of water in the sea rises and falls. This phenomenon is called high and low tides and the difference is sea stage offers us tidal power. Tidal energy is harnessed by way of building a dam throughout a slim establishing to the sea. A turbine constant at the hole of the dam converts tidal power to energy.

The kinetic energy possessed through large waves close to the seaside may be trapped to generate strength. The waves are generated by using robust winds blowing throughout the sea. Wave electricity could be a viable proposition only wherein waves are very robust. A wide variety of gadgets has been evolved to lure wave power for rotation of turbine and production of strength.

The water at the choices floor of the sea or ocean is heated by means of the sun even as the water in deeper sections is rather cold. This distinction in temperature is exploited to attain power in ocean-thermal-power conservative flowers. These flowers can function if the choices temperature distinction among the choices water at the floor and water at depths up to two km is 20 K or more. The heat floor water is used to boil volatile liquid like ammonia. The vapours of the choices liquid are then used to run the turbine of generator. The cold water from the depth of the sea is pumped up and condense vapour once more to liquid. The strength capability from the sea (tidal energy, wave power and ocean thermal electricity) is pretty big, however efficient business exploitation is hard.

27. What are the choices environmental outcomes of the usage of fossil fuels? Suggest the steps to reduce the pollution as a result of diverse resources of strength such as non-conventional resources of electricity reasons worldwide warming.

Following are the choices environmental results of the use of fossil fuels:

The steps to decrease the pollutants resulting from numerous assets of strength such as non-traditional assets of energy reasons global warming.

Pollution resulting from combustion of coal, petroleum (traditional sources) and biomass (non-traditional assets) can be decreased by increasing the choices efficiency of the choices combustion technique and using diverse techniques to reduce the choices break out of harmful gases and ashes into the surroundings.

The impact of greenhouse gases launched by means of burning of fossil fuels and biogas may be minimized through planting more bushes.

Pollution due to nuclear waste can be minimized by way of nicely disposing nuclear wastes.

28. Energy from numerous sources is considered to were derived from the sun. Do you settle? Justify your solution.

Yes, I agree by means of the choices statement that strength from diverse assets is considered to were derived from the choices solar, motives for that are:

Wind energy: As we recognize that warm air rises up and bloodless air settles down. By similar predominant, because of choppy heating of the choices earth’s surface by the solar rays at special adjoining locations a pressure distinction is created and wind is produced.

Wave electricity: Strong winds are generated because of the solar and the choices waves are generated by means of sturdy winds blowing throughout the ocean.

Ocean thermal electricity : The difference among the choices water at the choices surface and water as depth in seas and oceans is due to the solar.

Energy from fossil fuels : Fossil fuels are fashioned while huge plants and historical creatures are buried deep inside the earth crust below the impact of a number of pressure and warmth.

Solar power : The phenomenon of photoelectric effect (technology of strength by mild) is feasible only inside the presence of solar.

Bio – mass: Plants converts the solar power into chemical electricity with the help of inorganic substances (i.e air, water, etc). These flowers are fed on via flora and animals and produce wastes from which power is obtained.

Energy from flowing water: Water from sea and rivers evaporate and fall at one-of-a-kind places of the earth as snow and rainfall. This water accumulated in a dam and when allowed to flow rotates turbine of generator and strength is produced.

29. What is bio-mass? Explain the principle and working of a biogas plant using a labelled schematic diagram.

Biomass refers to those residing and non-living organic substances that can be used as assets of strength within the shape of gasoline. Some examples of biomass fuels are biogas, timber, vegetation, and organic garbage. The chemical strength in biomass is released as warmth on burning.

Bio-mass refers to the choices natural fuel acquired from flowers and animal wastes like wooden, cow-dung, residue after harvesting the choices crop, vegetable waste and sewage, and so forth. It has been used as a fuel for a long term. These fuels, but, do not produce much heat on burning and quite a few smoke is given out whilst they’re burnt.

When substances likes cow-dung, vegetable waste etc undergoes anaerobic (in absence of air) decomposition then those complex substances are broken down into less complicated materials and gases like methane, carbon dioxide and so on are produced.

The plant has a dome-like structure constructed with bricks. A slurry of cow dung and water is made in the mixing tank from wherein it is fed into the digester. The digester is a sealed chamber wherein there’s no oxygen. Anaerobic micro-organisms that don’t require oxygen decompose or wreck down complex compounds of the cow-dung slurry. It takes some days for the decomposition method to be entire and generate gases like methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. The bio-fuel is stored inside the fuel tank above the choices digester from which they are drawn via pipes to be used.

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which one of the following is an artificial environment?

Crop discipline is an agricultural land created by human.

2. In a meals chain, the choices 1/3 trophic level is always occupied through

Plants occupy the choices first trophic level, herbivores represent the second one trophic stage, carnivores represent the 1/3 trophic level and better carnivores occupy the choices fourth trophic degree.

a. all residing organisms

c. each residing organisms and non-dwelling objects

d. on occasion residing organisms and sometimes non-residing gadgets

All the interacting organisms in a place together with the choices non-living parts of the choices environment shape an atmosphere.Thus, an surroundings includes biotic additives comprising living organisms and a biotic additives comprising physical factors like temperature, rainfall, wind, soil and minerals.

four. In the given meals chain, suppose the quantity of electricity at fourth trophic level is 5kJ, what’s going to be the choices strength to be had at the manufacturer stage?

According to 10 percent law, 90% of the choices energy captured from the choices preceding trophic degree is misplaced to the choices environment and only 10 percent is made available to the next trophic stage.

In this food chain, at the 4th trophic stage, 5kJ energy is to be had to the snake

5. Accumulation of non-biodegradable insecticides inside the food chain in increasing quantity at each better trophic degree is called

Accumulation of non-biodegradable pesticides in the meals chain in growing quantity at every higher trophic stage is called bio-magnification.

6. Depletion of ozone is in particular due to

Depletion of ozone is mainly because of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). All other materials except chlorofluorocarbon compounds do now not make contributions to the choices depletion of ozone.

7. Organisms which synthesise carbohydrates from inorganic compounds the use of radiant electricity are called

Organisms which synthesise carbohydrates from inorganic compounds the usage of radiant electricity are known as manufacturers eg., all green flowers. The producers make the choices electricity from daylight available to the rest of the choices environment.

Organisms which eat the choices food produced, either at once from producers or not directly via feeding on different clients are the choices customers.

Microorganisms which spoil down the choices complicated natural substances into simple inorganic substances used by flowers are called decomposers.

Carnivores and herbivores are forms of clients.

eight. In an surroundings, the choices 10% of electricity to be had for transfer from one trophic degree to the following is within the shape of

The 10% of electricity available for transfer from one trophic degree to the next in an ecosystem is inside the form of chemical energy. The producers seize the strength found in daylight and convert it into chemical electricity that is handed into onto different trophic levels.

9. Organisms of a better trophic stage which feed on several sorts of organisms belonging to a lower trophic level constitute the choices

Organisms of a higher trophic degree feeding on several kinds of organisms belonging to a lower trophic degree constitute the meals internet.

Food chain is a chain of organisms thru which food strength flows in an ecosystem. Ecosystem constitutes of all the dwelling beings of a place and non-dwelling additives of their surroundings. An ecological pyramid indicates the choices feeding relationship between businesses of organisms and additionally depicts the quantity of biomass or energy gift at various trophic degrees in an ecosystem.

10. Flow of power in an ecosystem is usually

d. no particular course

The float of energy within the environment is unidirectional. The energy enters the flora (from the sun) through photosynthesis during the choices making of food. This electricity is then passed on from one organism to some other in a food chain.

The strength given out with the aid of the organisms as heat is lost to the surroundings, it does no longer return to be utilized by the choices vegetation again. This makes the choices flow of strength in ecosystem ‘unidirectional’.

11. Excessive publicity of human beings to UV rays results in

(i) harm to immune gadget

(ii) harm to lungs

Excessive exposers of humans to UV rays results in pores and skin cancer and additionally damage the choices immune device of the choices frame.

12. In the subsequent agencies of materials, which groups include handiest non-biodegradable gadgets?

(i) wood, paper, leather-based

(ii) polythene, detergent, PVC

(iii)plastic, detergent, grass

(iv)plastic, bakelite, DDT

The materials that can’t be decayed by means of the choices motion of microbes are non-biodegradable substances e.g., polythene, bakelite, PVC, detergent, DDT, plastics and many others.

Substances which may be decayed by way of microbes are known as biodegradable substances i.e., wood, paper, grass, and so on.

thirteen. Which of the following limits the wide variety of trophic ranges in a meals chain?

a. Decrease in power at better trophic ranges

b. Deficient meals supply

There is a loss of power as we move from one trophic stage to the subsequent, this boundaries the choices quantity of trophic levels in a food chain.

14. Which of the choices announcement is wrong?

a. All inexperienced plant life and blue-inexperienced algae are producers

b. Green plant life get their food from organic compounds

c. Producers put together their very own meals from inorganic compounds

d. Plants convert sun strength into chemical strength

Producers seize the solar electricity and convert it into chemical energy. All green plant life and certain blue-inexperienced algae that could produce food with the aid of photosynthesis come underneath this class and are known as the manufacturers.

15. Which group of organisms aren’t components of a meals chain?

(i) grass, lion, rabbit, wolf

(ii) plankton, guy, fish, grasshopper

(iii)wolf, grass, snake, tiger

(iv)frog, snake, eagle, grass, grasshopper

a. (i) and (iii)

b. (iii) and (iv)

c. (ii) and (iii)

d. (i) and (iv)

The waft of strength from one organism to any other taking component at various biotic degrees forms a food chain. A meals chain describes the feeding relationships among the organisms inside that environment.

Food chain (ii) is an aquatic food chain so grasshopper cannot be a part of it.

In food chain (iii), wolf, snake and tiger all are carnivores. There is no herbivore to devour grass or herbivore is lacking from the chain.

sixteen. The percentage of solar radiation absorbed with the aid of all of the inexperienced vegetation for the choices method of photosynthesis is about

The green flowers in a terrestial ecosystem capture about 1% of the choices strength of sunlight that falls on their leaves and convert it into meals electricity.

17. In the choices given parent, the numerous trophic levels are proven in a pyramid. At which trophic degree is maximum electricity available?

The most strength is available at first tropic level i.e., T1. After that there is modern decline in the quantity of power available from manufacturer to better trophic ranges. An common of 10% of the choices food eaten is changed into its personal body and made to be had for the following stage of consumers.

18. What will show up if deer is missing in the food chain given under?

a. The population of tiger will increase

b. The populace of grass decreases

c. Tiger will begin consuming grass

d. The population of tiger decreases and the choices population of grass will increase

If deer is lacking inside the food chain then there could be no herbivore to eat grass, so populace of grass will growth. Tiger will start to die of hunger, so the populace of tiger will lower.

19. The decomposers in an ecosystem

a. convert inorganic material to less difficult forms

b. convert natural cloth to inorganic bureaucracy

c. convert inorganic substances into natural compounds

d. do not breakdown organic compounds

The microorganisms that smash down the complicated organic substances into simple inorganic materials those goes into the soil and are used up once more by way of the choices flowers.

20. If a grasshopper is eaten by a frog, then the choices energy transfer will be from

a. manufacturer to decomposer

b. producer to number one customer

c. primary patron to secondary client

d. secondary patron to number one consumer

Grasshopper feeds on producers (ie., grass or flora) so, grasshopper is a primary consumer. Frogs are ingesting grasshopper so they’re secondary patron.

21. Disposable plastic plates ought to no longer be used because

a. they may be manufactured from materials with mild weight

b. they’re manufactured from toxic materials

c. they’re fabricated from biodegradable materials

d. they’re manufactured from non-biodegradable materials

Plastics are made up of non-biodegradable material and causes pollution. Hence use of disposable plastics must be averted.

Part B : Short Answer Type

22. Why is improper disposal of waste a curse to environment?

Certain materials whilst burnt in air releases harmful gases. When these substances dumped in river or sea create water pollutants. Some kind of waste materials on dumping inside the floor can make the choices land infertile.

So, if proper method of waste disposal machine isn’t used then it’ll contaminate the surroundings.

23. Write the not unusual meals chain of a pond surroundings.

A common meals chain of a pond ecosystem is as follows:

Producers (aquatic plant life) à herbivores (protozoa) à carnivore (small fishes) à massive carnivores (large fishes)

24. What are the choices advantages of material bags over plastic bags at some point of purchasing?

Cloth baggage have many blessings over plastic luggage, some of them are:

Bags made of clothes can be used again and again through washing or editing. One can alter these luggage in home. Cloth luggage are biodegradable and don’t causes pollutants.

25. Why are crop fields called artificial environment?

Ecosystems that are made by guy are called synthetic atmosphere. In case of crop area abiotic and biotic components are decided on by way of people. The critical manner which include sowing seeds, then irrigated and similarly progress is also stored beneath observation for purchasing exact yield.

26. Differentiate among biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. Give examples.

Difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials are:

Substances that may be broken down into less complicated materials by the choices action of decomposers.

Substances that may’t be damaged down into less complicated materials by using the action of decomposers.

These substances do not motive pollution.

These substances motive pollution.

Eg., vegetables, end result, and so forth.

Eg., polythene, DDT and many others.

27. Suggest one word for each of the following statement.

a. The bodily and organic global where we stay in

b. Each degree of food chain wherein transfer of electricity takes location.

c. The bodily factors like temperature, rainfall, wind and soil of an atmosphere.

d. Organisms which rely on the producers either directly or circuitously for food.

28. Explain the choices function of decomposers within the environment.

The microorganisms, comprising micro organism and fungi, breakdown the lifeless remains and waste merchandise of organisms. These microorganisms are the choices decomposers as they break down the complicated natural materials into simple inorganic substances that move into the soil and are used up once more with the aid of the plant life.

They act as natural cleaning agent through decomposing lifeless organisms and biodegradable wastes and facilitates in replenishment of the soil’s vitamins.

29. pick out the mismatched pair inside the following and accurate it.

Accumulation of chemical substances at the choices successive trophic stages of a meals chain.

Biotic additives of environment.

Organisms which acquire meals from other residing organisms.

An environment consists of biotic additives (dwelling organisms) as well as abiotic additives (soil, air, water, and so forth) of surroundings.

30. We do not clean ponds or lakes, however an aquarium wishes to be cleaned. Why?

A pond or a lake forms a herbal and complete atmosphere. All the choices meals chain provides in these ecosystems are entire. These ecosystems have masses of producers, consumers and decomposers.

On the other hand an aquarium is an incomplete synthetic atmosphere. An aquarium does now not have sufficient populace of decomposers to decompose waste fabric produced by using aquatic animals. Due to this cause aquarium desires to be cleaned regularly.

Part C : Long Answer Type

31. Indicate the choices go with the flow of power in an ecosystem. Why is it unidirectional? Justify.

To manage air pollution positive absorption equipments may be fitted in chimneys of fertilizer industries which can take in dangerous pollutants earlier than the smoke is launched into surroundings.

Water blended with chemicals may be despatched to water our bodies after treatment in remedy vegetation within industries. Water can also be sent to any nearby remedy plant life with the choices assist of a suitable drainage device.

32. What are the choices byproducts of fertilizer industries? How do they affect the surroundings?

The via products of the fertiliser industries are oxides of nitrogen and sulphur i.e., SO2 CO, NOx, CO2, H2S, different stable, liquid chemicals and a few stable waste cloth.

These materials usually launched in air or unload in river bodies or sea which causes water pollutants. These materials whilst ate up by using flora and animals input the food chain.

By the choices manner of biomagnification these harmful chemical compounds get concentrated at each trophic degree. Human being omnivore eats both vegetation and animals that’s extraordinarily harmful for fitness. SO2 gas launched in environment can reason acid rain which also impact monuments and homes.

33. Explain a few dangerous results of agricultural practices on the choices surroundings.

Although agriculture is important however there are alternatives a few dangerous consequences of agricultural practices on the surroundings which can be as follows:

Excessive slicing down of timber for agricultural purposes causes deforesting and at some stage in rain fall it is able to additionally bring about soil erosion.

Excess drainage of groundwater for irrigation purposes lowers the choices water table. This consequences in acute water shortage at many locations.

Synthetic fertilizers and insecticides used inside the subject during rain fall washed away to rivers and different bodies which reason water pollution.

The chemical insecticides, being non-biodegradable accumulates in organisms in increasing amounts at every trophic stage usually known as biomagnification.

Chapter sixteen : Management of Natural Resources

Part A : Multiple Choice Questions

1. From the choices listing given beneath choose the choices object that isn’t a herbal useful resource.

Resources that occur evidently inside environment are referred to as as natural resources.

2. The most swiftly dwindling natural sources inside the international is

Forests are diminishing at a fast tempo due to an growth in deforestation to satisfy the demand of developing populace.

three. The most appropriate definition of a herbal useful resource is that it’s far a substance or commodity that is

a. present only on land

b. a present of nature which is very beneficial to mankind

c. a man-made substance positioned in nature

d. available simplest inside the wooded area

Resources that occur clearly inside surroundings are called as herbal resources.

four. The main cause for abundant coliform micro organism within the river Ganga is :

a. disposal of unburnt corpses into water

b. discharge of effluents from electroplating industries

c. washing of clothes

d. immersion of ashes

Coliform micro organism discovered in human intestines and in unburnt corpses.

5. The pH of water sample amassed from a river turned into located to be acidic inside the variety of 3.five – 4.five on the banks of the river were several factories that had been discharging effluents into the river. The effluents of which one of the following factories is the maximum likely purpose for lowering the pH of river water?

a. Soap and detergent factory

b. lead battery manufacturing manufacturing facility

c. plastic cup production manufacturing facility

Acid spillage from lead battery production manufacturing facility can decrease down the pH.

6. The pH range most conducive for life of freshwater plants and animals is

Neutral pH helps all existence bureaucracy.

7. The three R’s as a way to assist us to conserve herbal assets for long term use are

a. recycle, regenerate, reuse

b. reduce, regenerate, reuse

c. lessen, reuse, redistribute

d. reduce, recycle, reuse

Reduce, recycle and reuse can preserve the natural assets.

8. Given under are a few statements associated with biodiversity. Pick those that successfully describe the choices concept of biodiversity.

(i) biodiversity refers to the choices specific species of plant life and fauna present in a place.

(ii)biodiversity refers to most effective the vegetation of a given place.

(iii)biodiversity is greater in a woodland.

(iv)biodiversity refers to the entire range of people of a selected species dwelling in a place.

Biodiversity is overall variety of species of flora and animals present in a given area.

9. Among the statements given beneath pick out those that effectively describe the choices concept of sustainable improvement?

(i)planned increase with minimal harm to the environment.

(ii) increase irrespective of the extent of damage brought on to the choices surroundings.

(iii)stopping all development work to conserve the environment.

(iv)growth this is acceptable to all of the stakeholders.

Sustainable improvement refers to planned boom with minimal harm to the environment even as keeping the destiny of coming technology in mind.

10. In our u . s . a ., full-size tracts of forests are cleared and a unmarried species of plant is cultivated. This practice promotes

a. biodiversity in the location

b. monoculture inside the area

c. boom of natural wooded area

d. preserves the choices herbal environment inside the area

Monoculture is cultivation of a unmarried species of plant.

eleven. A successful wooded area conservation strategy must involve

a. Protection of animals at the very best trophic degree

b. Protection of simplest purchasers

c. Protection of handiest herbivores

d. Comprehensive program to defend all of the bodily and biological additives.

Forest conservation strategy ought to be according to general biotic and abiotic elements.

12. The crucial message conveyed through the choices ‘Chipko Movement’ is

a. To contain the choices network in forest conservation efforts

b. To forget about the network in woodland conservation efforts

c. To reduce down woodland timber for developmental activities

d. Government agencies have the choices unquestionable proper to order destruction of trees in forests

‘Chipko Movement’ represents sacred emotions of network in the direction of the choices neighborhood woodland areas.

13. In our usa, there are alternatives attempts to increase the peak of numerous current dams like Tehri and Almati, dams throughout Narmada. Choose the perfect statements most of the following which can be a outcome of raising the height of dams.

(i) Terrestrial plant life and fauna of the choices area is destroyed absolutely.

(ii)Disclocation of humans and domestic animals living inside the place.

(iii)Valuable agricultural land may be completely misplaced.

(iv)It will generate everlasting employment for humans.

Dam construction causes destruction of downstream agricultural land and adversely affects the choices residing organisms present there.

14. Expand the choices abbreviation GAP

a. Governmental Agency for Pollution Control

b. Gross Assimilation by using Photosynthesis

c. Ganga Action Plan

d. Government Agency for Animal Protection

GAP, 1985 got here in lifestyles to check water pollutants in river Ganga.

15. Select the wrong announcement.

a. Economic development is connected to environmental conservation.

b. Sustainable improvement encourages improvement for current era and conservation for sources for futures generations.

c. Sustainable improvement does not don’t forget the view factors of stakeholders.

d. Sustainable development is a long planned and continual improvement.

Sustainable developments take into consideration each monetary growth and ecological conservation simultaneously.

16. Which of the subsequent isn’t a natural aid?

Resources that occur obviously within environment are referred to as as natural resources.

17. Select the wrong announcement.

a. Forests provide form of products

b. Forests have greater plant variety

c. Forests do not preserve soil

d. Forests preserve water

In forests, roots of trees firmly maintain the soil debris to guard it from flowing away.

18. Arabari forests of Bengal is dominated with the aid of

Arabari forests of Bengal are ruled with the aid of sal timber.

19. Ground water will not be depleted due to

b. Thermal electricity flora

c. Loss of forest and decreased rainfall

d. Cropping of excessive water stressful plants.

Plantation of timber is called as afforestation.

20. Opposition to the choices production of massive dams is due to

d. All of those

Dam creation adversely influences neighborhood plants and fauna by using raising social, economic and environmental troubles.

21. Khandins, Bundhis, Ahara and Kattas are historic systems that are examples for

Khadins, Bundhis, Ahara and Kattas are historical water conservation practices.

22. Pick the proper combination of terms which has no fossil gas.

a. Wind, ocean and coal

b. Kerosene, wind and tide

c. wind, wooden, solar

d. petroleum, wooden, sun

Wind and sun are herbal assets even though timber is a fossil gasoline.

23. Select the green interest the various following:

a. the usage of car for transportation

b. using polybags for shopping

c. using dyes for colouring garments

d. using windmills to generate strength for irrigation

Wind is a source of renewable energy.

24. It is vital to make small check dams throughout the flooded gullies due to the fact they

(i) Hold water for irrigation

(ii)Hold water and prevent soil erosion

(iv)Hold water completely

Small take a look at dams brief dams throughout the choices flooded gullies to prevent negative results of flooding on close by regions and land.

Part B : Short Answer Type

25. Prepare a listing of 5 items that you use each day within the college. Identify from the choices listing such objects that can be recycled.

List of items used day by day in school: Paper, pen, plastic container, scale, eraser, rexin bag, blade, compass and dividers (metal), steel lunch field, metallic spoon,and so forth.

Recyclable objects: Paper, plastic field, eraser, blade, compass, metal lunch container and metallic spoon.

26. List two advantages associated with water harvesting at the choices network stage.

27. In a village in Karnataka, people commenced cultivating vegetation all round a lake which become usually full of water. They introduced fertilizers to their field so one can enhance the yield. Soon they discovered that the choices water frame was absolutely blanketed with green floating flowers and fishes started death in big numbers.

Analyze the choices state of affairs and supply motives for immoderate increase of flowers and death of fish inside the lake.

Use of fertilizers multiplied the choices degree of natural nutrients which in turn assist the choices boom of small, inexperienced, aquatic plants and the choices surface of water became completely blanketed with flora. The system is known as as eutrophication. Consumption of oxygen through those flowers brought about demise of fishes and different aquatic animals. Since water surface is blanketed with those planktons, underwater plant life deprived of mild and died.

28. What measures could you’re taking to preserve strength in your property?

29. Although coal and petroleum are produced through degradation of bio-mass, but we need to conserve them. Why ?

Coal and petroleum are produced with the aid of an extended technique of deterioration which cannot keep pace with exponentially growing call for of developing populace. If not used in sustainable manner, those sources will exhaust quickly.

30. Suggest some measures for controlling carbon dioxide degrees within the environment.

31. i. Locate and call the water reservoirs in parent a and b.

ii.Which has a bonus over the other and why?

i.a pond b underground water frame.

ii.Under floor water our bodies are at benefit because:

Part C : Long Answer Type

32. In the context of conservation of natural sources give an explanation for the phrases lessen, recycle and reuse. From a number of the materials that we use in daily lifestyles, identify materials for each category.

Reduce: It way smart and lesser use of resources.

For eg. Reduce using electricity via switching it off when no longer in use and decrease the usage of water.

Recycle: It is the choices technique of series of used gadgets and converting them into new beneficial matters.

For eg. Recycling of old newspapers and used note books to shape new paper, recycling of plastic, metallic and glass objects to form another useful merchandise.

Reuse : It method using a aspect time and again rather than throwing it away.

For eg. Reuse the water from RO in watering plant life or washing clothes, reuse of envelopes, glass packing containers, and many others. for garage of things.

33. Prepare a list of five activities which you perform every day in which natural aid may be conserved or power utilization can be minimized.

34. Is water conservation essential? Give reasons.

Yes, water conservation is essential due to the fact:

35. Suggest some beneficial ways of utilizing waste water.

36. What is the choices significance of forest as a resource?

Forests are renewable herbal resource and function

37. Why are the choices Arabari forests of Bengal regarded to be a terrific example of conserved woodland?

The Arabari forests placed in Midnapur district of West Bengal were badly degraded. West Bengal wooded area branch, 1972 deliberate to revive the degraded woods by regarding the choices villagers of the encompassing area to the choices shield 1272 hectares of this forest. In return villagers were benefitted via getting employment in silviculture and harvesting. They were allowed to accumulate wood and fodder on payment of nominal rate. The people cooperated with complete vigor as the regained their rights to wooded area produce. In this manner, by using the active and inclined participation of the area people, the sal forests of Arabari have been conserved.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Ncert answers 2021 – FAQ

You can discover the choices maximum accurate and reliable NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths on Vedantu. Vedantu is an online mentoring platform recognised to offer the choices maximum complete NCERT Solutions to help students in their studies

The best manner to put together for CBSE board exams and maximum marks is to practice NCERT books as lots as possible. NCERT is the satisfactory useful resource to excel in CBSE assessments. The ideas in the books are supplied in any such way to intricate on the important subjects and questions.

A total of 15 chapters are present inside the NCERT Class 10 Maths. Chapter 1- Real Numbers, Chapter 2- Polynomials, Chapter three- Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables, Chapter four- Quadratic Equations, Chapter five- Arithmetic Progressions, Chapter 6- Triangles, Chapter 7- Coordinate Geometry, Chapter 8- Introduction to Trigonometry, Chapter 9- Some Applications of Trigonometry, Chapter 10- Circles, Chapter eleven- Constructions, Chapter 12- Areas Related to Circles, Chapter thirteen- Surface Areas and Volumes, Chapter 14- Statistics, Chapter 15- Probability are the Chapters in Class 10 Maths NCERT.

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